Effective design is essential to creating adaptive outdoor activities. Ability-Based Design (ABD) is an approach to accessible design in the HCI literature that we found to be most appealing for this endeavour. ABD focuses on making systems adaptable to users' needs and abilities rather than making the user con-form to system requirements. We explore the principles of ABD in the context of two adaptive outdoor experiences: Tetra-Ski and Tetra-Sail. We found that while the general approach of ABD is useful in this context, some of the basic tenants of ABD can be confounded by: (1) activity risk, (2) dynamic sport environments, and (3) the role of psychological flow during the activity. To accommodate these restrictions on ABD principles and provide a usable experience we developedShared-Control as a collaborative approach to implementation. This paper explores using Shared-Control and ABD principles in the context of these two adaptive recreation systems for individuals with acquired tetraplegia. This perspective reveals tensions between ABD guidelines and designing for adaptive outdoor activities. We reflect on these tensions, potential additions to ABD, and our own usage of Shared-Control as a mechanism for adhering to ABD principles in this context.
Mid-air haptic interfaces have several advantages - the haptic information is delivered directly to the user, in a manner that is unobtrusive to the immediate environment. They operate at a distance, thus easier to discover; they are more hygienic and allow interaction in 3D. We validate, for the first time, in a preliminary study with sighted and a user study with blind participants, the use of mid-air haptics for conveying Braille. We tested three haptic stimulation methods, where the haptic feedback was either: a) aligned temporally, with haptic stimulation points presented simultaneously (Constant); b) not aligned temporally, presenting each point independently (Point-By-Point); or c) a combination of the previous methodologies, where feedback was presented Row-by-Row. The results show that mid-air haptics is a viable technology for presenting Braille characters, and the highest average accuracy (94% in the preliminary and 88% in the user study) was achieved with the Point-by-Point method.
People with physical impairments who are unable to use traditional input devices (i.e. mouse and keyboard) are often excluded from technical professions (e.g. web development). Alternative input methods such as eye gaze tracking and speech recognition have become more readily available in recent years with both being explored independently to support people with physical impairments in coding activities. This paper describes a novel multimodal application ("Voiceye") that combines voice input, gaze interaction, and mechanical switches as an alternative approach for writing code. The system was evaluated with non-disabled participants who have coding experience (N=29) to assess the feasibility of the application in writing HTML and CSS code. Results found that Voiceye was perceived positively and enabled successful completion of coding tasks. A follow-up study with disabled participants (N=5) demonstrated that this method of multimodal interaction can support people with physical impairments in writing and editing code.
Sailing has a range of positive impacts on mental and physical health-related quality of life for individuals with tetraplegia. This work describes the iterative design process of creating an adaptive sailing experience that requires minimal training and preparation for individuals with tetraplegia. The Tetra-Sail is an adaptive sailing experience that uses a Shared-Control approach to accept input from both the main user and an experienced adaptive instructor (control partner). This approach was used to create a usable experience for individuals with all types of physical abilities, including participants with high-level and complete spinal cord injuries characterized by loss of sensation and function below their site of injury, with minimal preliminary training. A study of nine participants (five first-time users of Tetra-Sail and four who had used previous iterations) suggested that participants found Tetra-Sail usable and enjoyable. Participants expressed feelings of empowerment, which they attributed to the flexible adaptation to their abilities supported by the implementation of Shared-Control.
Video accessibility is crucial for blind and visually impaired individuals for education, employment, and entertainment purposes. However, professional video descriptions are costly and time-consuming. Volunteer-created video descriptions could be a promising alternative, however, they can vary in quality and can be intimidating for novice describers. We developed a Human-in-the-Loop Machine Learning (HILML) approach to video description by automating video text generation and scene segmentation and allowing humans to edit the output. The HILML approach facilitates human-machine collaboration to produce high quality video descriptions while keeping a low barrier to entry for volunteer describers. Our HILML system was significantly faster and easier to use for first-time video describers compared to a human-only control condition with no machine learning assistance. The quality of the video descriptions and understanding of the topic created by the HILML system compared to the human-only condition were rated as being significantly higher by blind and visually impaired users.
Design practitioners are increasingly engaged in describing ethical complexity in their everyday work, exemplified by concepts such as "dark patterns" and "dark UX." In parallel, researchers have shown how interactions and discourses in online communities allow access to the various dimensions of design complexity in practice. In this paper, we conducted a content analysis of the subreddit "/r/assholedesign," identifying how users on Reddit engage in conversation about ethical concerns. We identify what types of artifacts are shared, and the salient ethical concerns that community members link with "asshole" behaviors. Based on our analysis, we propose properties that describe "asshole designers," both distinct and in relation to dark patterns, and point towards an anthropomorphization of ethics that foregrounds the inscription of designer's values into designed outcomes. We conclude with opportunities for further engagement with ethical complexity in online and offline contexts, stimulating ethics-focused conversations among social media users and design practitioners.
By leveraging approaches from other disciplines, designers can expand the boundaries of interaction design to tackle complex socio-technical problems. To address the challenges of networked social justice movements, we developed a workshop for designers and social justice activists based in Viewpoints and Composition, a philosophy and set of techniques for the theatre. Building on other experience prototyping and somatic methods, the workshop leads participants through the design of a hypothetical internet-enabled social justice campaign, encouraging them to imagine the felt-experience of networked social justice movement building in a socio-spatial context. We conclude with insights from the workshop and plans to further develop these techniques.
On the International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers (IDEVASW), sex worker rights advocates and support services commemorate lives lost due to violence. In this paper we describe and reflect on a Feminist Participatory Action Research project that supported the activities of IDEVASW over two years in North East England. Working alongside a charity that provides services to women who are sex workers or have experienced sexual exploitation, we co-organised the first activist march on the day. As researchers and service providers, we present detailed reflections on the use of digital technologies during the public activist march, a private service for commemoration, and the development of a semi-public archive to collect experiences of the day. We develop three implications for the design of digital technologies for activism and the commemoration of lost lives: as catalysts for reflection and opportunities to layer experience.
This pictorial examines the relationship between inquiry and activism within academic settings through the design of protest artifacts. Inspired by lineages of feminist print production, we illustrate our own process of creating simple acts of resistance through electronic posters and buttons. Naming these interventions "lightweight design interactions," we hold on to the ways design practice might work as modest, partial, and incremental shifts in the circumstances through which design futures unfold. Lightweight design interactions encourage us as design researchers to look beyond the bold creation of alternatives (new design artifacts) to the subtle nurturing of the circumstances that make alternatives possible.
Addressing human values in design has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of interactive systems. Within HCI, this trend is perhaps best emphasized by the increased volume of work that follows a Value Sensitive Design (VSD) approach. This trend is mirrored in human rights, especially in Europe, where individual values have been increasingly incorporated into the jurisprudence on the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). There are a number of striking similarities between VSD and recent ECHR jurisprudence. This paper explores those similarities and how ECHR jurisprudence may be used to help with Values in Design problems and vice versa, thereby enabling VSD and similar approaches to be considered from a human rights perspective, whilst contributing to debates about the future of Values in Design.
Long distance couples often face challenges in maintaining their relationship over distance because computer-mediated communication tools typically only support a limited range of relationship maintenance behaviors. To explore a broader design space that might help combat this problem, we conducted an autobiographical design study that explores the usage of a telepresence robot coupled with voice-activated smart home devices. The telepresence robot provided an embodiment for one remote partner who could talk through the robot to control the smart devices in the remote location. We studied how the setup was used by a long distance couple over a three month period to share their home and nurture and maintain their relationship. The study revealed how such a setup can promote feelings of ownership, belonging, and normalcy, as well as a diversity of interactions and social connections. Implications for design include the importance of supporting effortful, personalized, varied, and shared interactions.
Drones are an exciting technology that is quickly being adopted in the global consumer market. Africa has become a center of deployment with the first drone airport established in Rwanda and drones currently being used for applications such as medical deliveries, agriculture, and wildlife monitoring. Despite this increasing presence of drones, there is a lack of research on stakeholders' perspectives from this region. We ran a human-drone interaction user study (N=15) with experts from several sub-Saharan countries using a co-design methodology. Participants described novel applications and identified important design aspects for the integration of drones in this context. Our results highlight the potential of drones to address real world problems, the need for them to be culturally situated, and the importance of considering the social aspects of their interaction with humans. This research highlights the need for diverse perspectives in the human-drone interaction design process.
There has been increasing interest in the application of humanoid robots in service domains like retail or care homes in recent years. Here, most use cases focus on serving customer needs autonomously. Frequently, human intervention becomes necessary to support the robot in exceptional situations. However, direct intervention of service operators is often not possible and requires specialized personnel. In a co-design process with 13 service operators from a pharmacy, we designed a remote working environment for human-robot collaboration that enables first-time experiences and collaboration with robots. Five participants took part in an assessment study and reported on their experiences about the utility, usability and user experience. Results show that participants were able to control and train the robot through the remote control environment. We discuss implications of our results for future work in service domains and emphasize a shift of focus from full robot automatization to human-robot collaboration forms.
Agents that support spoken interaction (e.g., Amazon Echo) are designed for social spaces like the home, yet designers know little about how they should respond to social activity around them. We set out to reconsider current one-on-one interactions with agents, and explore the design space of future socially sophisticated agents. To do so, we use an iterative co-design process with designers and theatre experts to devise an immersive performance, "Robotic Futures." Theatre is a form of knowing through doing-by examining the interactions that persisted in the devising process and those that fell through, we conclude with a proposition for design considerations for future agents. Based on emerging research in this space, we focus on the characteristics of personally-owned agents in comparison to shared agents, and consider the roles and functions each introduce in their integration in the home.
To give robots, which are black box systems for most users, feedback we have to implement interaction paradigms that users understand and accept, for example reward and punishment. In this paper we present the first HRI experience prototype which implements gradual destructive interaction, namely breaking a robot's leg as a punishment technique. We conducted an exploratory experiment (N=20) to investigate participants' behavior during the execution of three punishment techniques. Using a structured analysis of videos and interviews, we provide in-depth insights into participants' attitude towards these techniques. Participants preferred more abstract techniques and felt uncomfortable during human-like punishment interaction. Based on our findings, we raise questions how human-like technologies should be designed. A video documentation of the project can be found here: https://vimeo.com/348646727
This pictorial uses imagery of human-robot collaboration, or cobots, as a site to examine the potential of queer use within design research. Through close documentation of our process, we reflect on acts of teaching a commercially available robot to knit with us-a messy and seemingly unproductive process. However, this uselessness of the chosen task allows us to re-consider the idealization of robotic collaboration. We question the optimization of a largely human labor force and the associated drive to increase efficiency within a range of sectors, from the service industry to industrial production. Building on non-use literatures examining technological limits, and drawing on performative explorations and critique, we show how knitting enlarges our capacity to visualize what might be a suitable use case for cobots.
We describe an approach for designing information infrastructure that addresses lifelong recordkeeping needs for those caught up in the child protection sector. The challenge is to enable people to exert their rights over information as it manifests and changes through time over generational timescales. We conducted a series of participatory design and prototyping workshops over an 18-month period, with a core group of eight academic and community researchers. Using Recordkeeping Informatics to inform critical, rights-based, and trauma-sensitive systems design, we prototyped a distributed and participatory recordkeeping system that allows those with childhood protection experience to participate in their records. In this paper, we describe approaches we adapted for long-term participatory design in sensitive domains, and discuss the design artefacts we developed to capture the complexity of through-time information system design. We propose a set of design guidelines and discuss their implications for design work and systems.
Information portals are usually created to support the integration of migrants into a host country. However, the information-seeking process can be exhausting, cumbersome and even confusing for migrants as they must cope with time-consuming information overload while searching desired information from lists of documents. Chatbots are easy-to-use, natural, and intuitive, and thus could support information-seeking. There is a lack of research that engages and empowers migrants and other stakeholders as co-design participants in chatbot development. We explored how migrants can be empowered in designing a chatbot that supports their social integration. Using a co-design approach, we conducted a series of activities with migrants and other stakeholders (i.e., online questionnaires, empathy probes, surveys, and co-design workshops) to first understand their expectations regarding chatbots, and then co-design a personality-driven chatbot. We found that chatbot personality can drive co-designing a chatbot as design goals, design directions, and design criteria.
New technologies and practices are constantly transforming our interaction with computational systems. These transformations bring challenges to the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) field, along with a constant need to better understand and describe how the design of interactive systems is changing. Currently, movements and theories such as speculative design and embodied cognition present unconventional perspectives and bring debate into the field. We investigate what kind of artifacts and attitude towards the design of interactive systems emerged in the InsTime project, in which 9 interactive installations were co-designed addressing the concept of deep time. Our discussion draws on a juxtaposition of backgrounds in philosophy of science, speculative design, and embodied cognition to analyze and characterize the empirical data from the InsTime project. As contributions, besides presenting the 9 interactive installations from InsTime and their co-design process, our discussion leads to a characterization of an attitude towards design that we named socioenactive design.
Australian rural communities face challenges including climatic changes, social isolation, low levels of digital literacy, and higher levels of mental health issues. New services are tailored to meet those most at risk, and to reach and support local people. We showcase a contextually situated, comics-based illustrated digital story. This was co-designed and developed to reach rural men experiencing mental health issues 'Down Under' in rural Australia. Spring-boarding on traditional digital storytelling techniques, we discuss the process of identifying, capturing, co-designing and sharing the illustrated digital story. We highlight how comics may authentically capture and communicate rural mental health issues, while recognising the complexities inherent in this process. Ultimately, we argue co-designed comic-based digital storytelling has potential for sharing rural mental health promotion messages, and service support, with rural community members.
In this paper, we present a method of Dialogical Sketching. We introduce the development of this method as a discursive aid to understanding design probe responses within participatory co-design engagements but also articulate its potential more broadly within participatory research. Situated within a research study into the potential of digital jewellery to support self, we focus on how sketching can elucidate reflection on layers of meaning conveyed both explicitly and implicitly in participants' probe responses. The method enabled an iterative dialogue not bound by certainty, but more by inference, interpretation and suggested meanings. Systems of sketching scaffolded conversations about personal issues and feelings that were difficult to articulate in a way that was imaginative, rather than descriptive. We argue that the method firstly enriches the potential of probes, secondly encourages discourse in open and often uncertain ways and thirdly can enable sustained participatory engagement even through challenging circumstances.
Visualizations of personal data in self-tracking systems can make even subtle shifts in mental and physical states observable, greatly influencing how health and wellness goals are set, pursued, and achieved. At the same time, recent work in data ethics cautions that standardized models can have unintended negative consequences for some user groups. Through collaborative design and critical visual analysis, this study contrasts conventional visualizations of personal data with the ways that vulnerable populations represent their lived experiences. Participants self-tracked to manage bipolar disorder, a mental illness characterized by severe and unpredictable mood changes. During design sessions, each created a series of timeline drawings depicting their experiences with mental health. Examples of adaptive and vernacular design, these images use both normative standards and individualized graphic modifications. Analysis shows that conventional visual encodings can support facets of self-assessment while also imposing problematic normative standards onto deeply personal experiences.
We describe a long-term field study of Olo Radio, a music player that lets people re-experience digital music they have listened to previously. Olo Radio offers different 'timeframe modes' for organizing one's personal listening history data, and for exploring possible connections among songs and across time. We deployed 5 Olo Radios in 5 households for 8 months to understand participants' experiences over time. Our goals are to: (i) investigate the reflective potentialities of personal data for memory- oriented music listening and (ii) empirically explore conceptual propositions related to slow technology. Findings revealed Olo Radio became highly integrated in participants lives and triggered reflection on past life experiences. They also showed that Olo Radio was perceived to subtly change over time, and open up different ways of experiencing time. Findings are interpreted to present opportunities for future HCI research and practice.
To explore how materials, data, and humans collaborate to produce physical data representations, we created a series of artefacts from personal data we collected (about commuting, forgetting, and busy-ness) in different media---yarn and sound. We exchanged these artefacts without providing guidelines for how to interpret them in order to study where the boundary between maker and interpreter emerges. Through creating hand-crafted physicalizations and sonifications, we present three themes on making personal data narratives: matching data to the materials (and vice versa), accepting the materials' will to co-author, and negotiating between the experience of the data and data of the experience. In exchanging the artefacts, we explored the role of the interpreter as a re-maker and how multiple narratives can productively co-exist. We conclude with a discussion about how reimagining the roles of maker and interpreter might lead to new interactions with personal data narratives.
The advent of cloud platforms and mobile devices has complicated personal data management and decisions about what data to keep or discard. To explore how to help people curate their data, we designed Data Dashboard, a prototype system that provides: 1) a centralized overview of data from across platforms and devices, 2) customizable filters for sorting through many types of data. We evaluated the prototype with 18 participants. Building on top of previous literature, we use the concept of data boundaries (the idea of invisible but important separations across data) to explain participants' reactions to the prototype. We show that centralizing data in a single management system blurs boundaries and requires safety guarantees. Customization options, instead, uphold boundaries and reinforce user control. We discuss how to use these results for integrating data boundaries in the design of new tools, rethinking the language of personal data, and envisioning a post-cloud future.
Data collection from users' interactions with ubiquitous computing is a wicked problem for design. Despite legislation increasingly requiring "informed" consent, the apathy born from a constant bombardment of consent notifications means many users remain largely uninformed about the collection, manipulation and dissemination of their personal information. We explore existing semiotics as signposts that inform individual decisions, and report from a design activity where participants mapped out their daily personal data trails. Using these as inspiration we explore how to engage users with new or emergent data trails. This pictorial provides a visual argument for (1) engaging users with whole data trails, which may yield greater benefit than the optimisation of individual notifications, and (2) how a whole data trail perspective may be valuable in the development of semiotic conventions for acquainting users with emergent (future) data trails.
Wearables combine practical and conceptual challenges related to electronics, clothing and interaction design. Research through design in this area is commonly done iteratively through prototypes of increasing levels of fidelity, often relying on manual fabrication. However, manual fabrication presents challenges when comparing prototypes due to their varying levels of realization and the inaccuracy of reproductions. We discuss how using digital machine embroidery, combined with chemical embroidery technique, supports fabricating consistent high-fidelity prototypes for soft wearables in the form of research products. Our approach involves creating the textile substrate together with integrating and embedding electronic components through a unified process whilst keeping high control over alterations between prototypes. We illustrate this approach through the design process of the Smart Sock, a sensorized sock for rehabilitation. We detail the challenges behind our process and reflect on the opportunities emerging from using digital machine and chemical embroidery techniques combined to craft research products.
In this paper we investigate how a combination of "speculative" design methods can be used to generate theoretical understandings for dynamic, colour-changing fabrics for garments. Specifically, we combine a first-person, autobiographical, research through design (RtD) approach that draws strategies from speculative design. We call this approach alternative presents, inspired by the work of James Auger, and explore it as a way to generate theoretical propositions for dynamic fabric that emphasize the lived experience over technological innovation. The contributions of this framing are twofold. Firstly, we offer a theoretical contribution to the literature on dynamic fabric. Secondly, we make a methodological contribution for how autobiographical design and RtD can be oriented speculatively to generate intermediate knowledge, with particular emphasis on social-technical aspects.
Weaving as a craft possesses the structural, textural, aesthetic, and cultural expressiveness for creating a diversity of soft, wearable forms that are capable of technological integration. In this paper, we extend the woven practice for crafting on-skin interfaces, exploring the potential to "weave a second skin." Weaving incorporates circuitry in the textile structure, which, when extended to on-skin interface fabrication, allows for electrical connections between layers while maintaining a slim form. Weaving also supports multi-materials integration in the structure itself, offering richer materiality for on-skin devices. We present the results of extensive design experiments that form a design space for adapting weaving for on-skin interface fabrication. We introduce a fabrication approach leveraging the skin-friendly material of PVA, which enables on-skin adherence, and a series of case studies illustrating the functional and design potential of the approach. To understand the feasibility of on-skin wear, we conducted a user study on device wearability. To understand the expressiveness of the design space, we conducted a workshop study in which textiles practitioners created woven on-skin interfaces. We draw insights from this to understand the potential of adapting weaving for crafting on-skin interfaces.
Mechanical pushbuttons, which provide physical landmarks and clear tactile feedback, are easily accessible and highly reliable in eyes-free use. Potentially, their merits can improve the experiences of on-body or wearable HCI. However, they are not commonly adopted as a user interface of smart textiles because the physical mechanism of conventional pushbutton hardware requires further integration, which should be seamless enough to be comfortably worn. In this pictorial, we present a design exploration of the methodologies for interweaving mechanical pushbuttons into fabrics. The exploration used a frame system, which unifies the workflow of digital embroidery and 3D printing and enables the exploration of the physical design. Through the process, we investigated methods of integration and fabrication through making and presented our findings with proof-of-concept implementations. We also discussed the alternative designs and interaction methods as well as their implications to enlighten future research directions and opportunities.
The idea of nudging - that subtle changes in the 'choice architecture' can alter people's behaviors in predictable ways - was eagerly adopted by HCI researchers and practitioners over the past decade. Yet, the design of effective nudging interventions is far from trivial, with theoretical knowledge being unstructured, with over a hundred cognitive biases found online, and inaccessible to practitioners during design meetings. We present the design and evaluation of the Nudge Deck, a card-based, design support tool that provides actionable knowledge for the design of technology-mediated nudges. The tool was evaluated through two case studies where 58 participants were asked to design nudging interventions, in the contexts of physical activity promotion and misinformation mitigation, with and without the cards. We report on how the cards enhanced designers' self-efficacy, and led to more theoretically grounded, creative and appropriate for the context, ideas.
Designers create inspirational mood boards to express their design ideas visually, through collages of images and text. They find appropriate images and reflect on them as they explore emergent design concepts. After presenting the results of a participatory design workshop and a survey of professional designers, we introduce SemanticCollage, a digital mood board tool that attaches semantic labels to images by applying a state-of-the-art semantic labeling algorithm. SemanticCollage helps designers to 1) translate vague, visual ideas into search terms; 2) make better sense of and communicate their designs; while 3) not disrupting their creative flow. A structured observation with 12 professional designers demonstrated how semantic labels help designers successfully guide image search and find relevant words that articulate their abstract, visual ideas. We conclude by discussing how SemanticCollage inspires new uses of semantic labels for supporting creative practice.
Design cards are a popular way for designers to encode and communicate design knowledge. Aiming to inform the designers of such design tools we set out to characterize the design space of design cards in a two-pronged approach involving a) a systematic literature survey on the use of design cards and b) card sorting interviews, which were carried out in order to characterize the first impressions of design cards from design students, for different formal qualities and content of design cards. Our results point towards a need to develop more abstract and evocative presentations, that are visually attractive while supporting a flexible application of cards. Future research could explore whether such preferences are consistent with how card sets are used during design processes in practice.
Improvising on the piano keyboard requires extensive skill development, which may reduce the feeling of immersion and flow for amateur players. However, being able to add simple musical effects greatly boosts a player's ability to express their unique playing style. To simplify this process, we designed an electromyography-based (EMG) system which integrates seamlessly into normal play by allowing musicians to modulate sound pitch using their thumb. We conducted an exploratory user study where users played a predefined melody and improvised using our system and a standard pitch wheel. Interview responses and survey answers showed that the EMG-based system supported the players' musical flow. Additionally, interviews indicated the system's capabilities to foster player creativity, and that players enjoyed experimenting with the effect. Our work illustrates how EMG can support seamless integration into existing systems to extend the range of interactions provided by a given interface.
Making programmable physical artefacts and prototypes has inherent value for Research-through-Design (RtD) based HCI. Furthermore, the abstractions and representations within RtD and programming are vastly different, such as between observations, storyboards and the code. Studies have shown that the program of an artefact influences the RtD outcome, but there is also a disconnect between the observations of use and the abstractions involved in the programming. How can we program an artefact so that the code can be created, modified and reflected upon based on directly observable and non-technical abstractions? In this paper we present Storycoding, a computational-thinking based method for programming that focuses on bridging the representational abstractions. Using Storycoded artefacts, we examine programming in light of RtD. We discuss how Storycoding enables programming that is directly observable between the use and the abstractions, being respectful towards RtD. Finally, we conclude with implications towards HCI research and practice.
The design and development of Creativity Support Tools (CSTs) is of growing interest in research at the intersection of creativity and Human-Computer Interaction, and has been identified as a 'grand challenge for HCI'. While creativity research and HCI each have had long-standing discussions about---and rich toolboxes of---evaluation methodologies, the nascent field of CST evaluation has so far received little attention. We contribute a survey of 113 research papers that present and evaluate CSTs, and we offer recommendations for future CST evaluation. We center our discussion around six major points that researchers might consider: 1) Clearly define the goal of the CST; 2) link to theory to further understanding of usage of CSTs; 3) recruit domain experts, if applicable and feasible; 4) consider longitudinal, in-situ studies; 5) distinguish and decide whether to evaluate usability or creativity; and 6) as a community, help develop a toolbox for CST evaluation.
Based on word-color associations from a comprehensive, crowdsourced lexicon, we present Lexichrome: a web application that explores the popular perception of relationships between English words and eleven basic color terms using interactive visualization. Lexichrome provides three complementary visualizations: "Palette" presents the diversity of word-color associations across the color palette; "Words" reveals the color associations of individual words using a dictionary-like interface; "Roget's Thesaurus" uncovers color association patterns in different semantic categories found in the thesaurus. Finally, our text editor allows users to compose their own texts and examine the resultant chromatic fingerprints throughout the process. We studied the utility of Lexichrome in a two-part qualitative user study with nine participants from various writing-intensive professions. We find that the presence of word-color associations promotes awareness surrounding word choice, editorial decision, and audience reception, and introduce a variety of use cases, features, and opportunities applicable to creative writing, corporate communication, and journalism.
Parenting comes with many responsibilities, one of which is making ongoing decisions affecting their child's health. While today's parents have access to an abundance of parenting advice and data-both offline and online-little is known about their lived experience with these resources and how it interacts with other aspects of decision-making like intuition. Drawing on a survey of 65 parents and interviews of 12 parents of children aged 0-5 in the U.S., we provide the following contributions: an analysis of parents' experiences and needs when using different resources to make health and wellbeing decisions for their child; a definition of parents' lived experiences with intuition throughout the decision-making process; and a discussion of tensions and opportunities for designing in this sensitive space. Our findings can inform new design directions for interactive technology-based parenting support, particularly the potential to consider intuition and make parenting information and data more socially oriented.
Gender stereotyping in child development and education is a known issue but as yet little attention has been given to the design for change, or at least attenuate, stereotypical thinking. In our research we explored how Digital StoryTelling (DST) could support children in their awareness of negative gender stereotypes. Following a participatory design-inspired approach we involved 43 participants; children and adults (teachers and experts in the domain), in three workshops with the purpose of exploring this design space. Here, we describe this full process and its outcomes: nine concepts to guide the design of a DST tool. The workflow and toolbox used during the process are instances of an approach that could be replicated in other contexts and/or to challenge other types of stereotypes. The main contribution of our research is towards the design for change with and for children. We hope that our work will inspire members of our community to address these issues.
Research reveals that family experiences of technology use in everyday life can be complex and messy, often associated with tension and conflict. This complexity can be intensified when sets of parents have differing individual perspectives on their family's technology use. Exploring these different perspectives, requires an approach that not only considers parents not only as individuals, but also as part of a set. To challenge matters further, parents may not be fully aware of their own attitudes and assumptions relating to technology, let alone of each other's. Parents may also be embarrassed to share details about family conflicts. This methods paper presents a probe study that successfully helped us to explore the individual perspectives on family technology use that exist within sets of parents. It provides an example of an approach to using probes that can reveal the hidden experiences of multiple individuals within a social context. In this way, it contributes an understanding of how we might interrogate the complexities of co-experience.
Much research on meditation has shown its significant benefits for wellbeing. In turn, there has been growing HCI interest for the design of novel interactive technologies intended to facilitate meditation in real-time. In many of these systems, physiological signals have been mapped onto creative audiovisual feedback, however, there has been limited attention to the experiential qualities of meditation and the specific role that the body may play in them. In this paper, we report on workshops with 24 experts exploring the bodily sensations that emerge during meditation. Through material speculation, participants shared their lived experience of meditation and identified key stages during which they may benefit from additional aid, often multimodal. Findings emphasize the importance of recreating mindful physical sensations during moments of mind-wandering; in particular for supporting the regulation of attention through a range of embodied metaphors and haptic feedback, tailored to key transitions in the meditation process.
In this pictorial, we show and discuss the prototyping process we undertook to craft the High Water Pants, a mechatronic pair of pants that make climate change tangible for everyday cyclists. We position the pants as an example of embodied speculation and discuss how our prototyping methods helped us craft a speculative artifact that bridged the gap between the embodied experience of cycling and speculative futures with climate change. The pictorial contributes an accounting of our prototyping methods and how they strove to connect the dual contexts of (1) how the pants felt in the present, and (2) how that in-situ feeling reflected climate change data in order to create space for cyclists' embodied speculation about possible futures with climate change.
Contemporary self-tracking devices take forms that reflect particular cultures of self-tracking that emphasize clinical perspectives and numerical precision. In this pictorial, we explore alternative forms to speculate on other possible self-tracking cultures. We present how we involved experts on the relationship between the gut and the brain to inspire a design brief for an alternative gut tracking device. This led to the design of Loupe and Lightbox, which together operate to externalize gut biota for closer examination, aesthetic appreciation, and reflection on the self. The device represents an example of self-tracking as cultivation-building a longer-term relationship with the self as something to be nurtured, tended to, and cared about.
Drone Chi is a Tai Chi inspired human-drone interaction experience. As a design research project, situated within somaesthetic interaction design, where a central topic is cultivating bodily and sensory appreciation to improve one's quality of life. Drone Chi investigates the potential of autonomous micro-quadcopters as a design material for somaesthetic HCI. Through a quasi-chronological account of the design process, this pictorial articulates how the sensory experiences of Tai Chi were integrated into Drone Chi. Taking a slow and open-ended design research approach, we iteratively developed the project through somaesthetic, product design and engineering perspectives and drew heavily on design analogies and imagery for inspiration. This elevated the influence of the soma amongst narrow engineering parameters and usability requirements. This pictorial serves as a reflective resource for designers who are experimenting with merging their native discipline with someasthetic interaction design.
Menarche is the first occurrence of menstrual bleeding and it usually begins between the ages of 9-15. This makes menarche a crucial transition among other social, physiological and behavioural changes during puberty. In this soma-based research-through-design project we design an open-ended prototyping kit: Menarche Bits. The aim of Menarche Bits is to open a design space for young adolescents to create body-worn technologies that support them in making space for their experiences of menarche and trusting their menstruating bodies. Menarche Bits consists of heat elements and shape-changing actuators that can be worn directly on the body by adhering to the skin or being inserted into pockets in a stretchable fabric as part of a garment. We describe the soma design process behind Menarche Bits as an example of how body-worn technologies can intimately interact with the body and its movement, temporality and material changes.
Imaging capsules are ingestible sensors that capture the video of one's gastrointestinal tract for medical diagnosis. We believe that the capsule's experiential perspective is often overlooked by associated medical applications. This work explores the design of this experiential perspective through combining imaging capsules with digital play. We designed a playful wearable system called "InsideOut", where users play with the real-time video of their gastrointestinal tract captured by an imaging capsule. Based on an in-the-wild study, we derived four themes articulating the play experiences and discussed key design implications to guide future playful designs using imaging capsules. Our research highlights the opportunity of using medical imaging technologies to enable intriguing bodily play experiences. Furthermore, such experiences can deepen the players' engagement with and understanding of their bodies, ultimately contributing to a more playful and humanized health care agenda.
In this paper, we present a novel collaboration tool, OmniGlobeVR, which is an asymmetric system that supports communication and collaboration between a VR user (occupant) and multiple non-VR users (designers) across the virtual and physical platform. OmniGlobeVR allows designer(s) to explore the VR space from any point of view using two view modes: a 360° first-person mode and a third-person mode. In addition, a shared gaze awareness cue is provided to further enhance communication between the occupant and the designer(s). Finally, the system has a face window feature that allows designer(s) to share their facial expressions and upper body view with the occupant for exchanging and expressing information using nonverbal cues. We conducted a user study to evaluate the OmniGlobeVR, comparing three conditions: (1) first-person mode with the face window, (2) first-person mode with a solid window, and (3) third-person mode with the face window. We found that the first-person mode with the face window required significantly less mental effort, and provided better spatial presence, usability, and understanding of the partner's focus. We discuss the design implications of these results and directions for future research.
We explore how a combination of manipulations and transitions can extend Substitutional Reality to create a highly personal Virtual Reality experience. Our design aimed to meet two challenges faced by museums: the limitations of object handling and the desire for visitors to create their own interpretations. Using a Research-through-Design methodology, we built a performance-led Mixed Reality (MR) experience that lets museum visitors physically handle 3D prints or scans of museum objects to share personal stories about them. The stories are recorded and donated to the participating museum. We reflect on the complex design and the findings gained from a two-day in-the-wild deployment to explore engagement and disruption through manipulations of physicality, visuals, and scale; the transitions between spaces; and a trajectory of storytelling performance. We chart a wide scope for Performative Substitutional Reality and draw implications for VR, MR, and performance-led research in any context.
Bio-responsive immersive Virtual Reality can transform our interactions to bring awareness to our physiological rhythms fostering connection with our bodies, each other and nature. JeL is an immersive installation that aims to foster a feeling of connection through the process of breathing synchronization. Two immersants synchronize their breathing to fuel the growth of a coral-like structure that, together with the interactions of others, populates an initially empty coral reef. JeL is designed to support an intimate connection between users and with nature, sending a message about our collective capacity to care for the environment. JeL is an installation and research platform for exploring breathing synchronization and its effect on the feeling of connection. It was well received at a digital art festival where participants were able to relax and synchronize using the installation. Reflection on our design process and observations provides insights for the development of systems that promote connection.
Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to support profound emotional experiences, such as experiencing awe when virtually viewing the Earth from space. In doing so, VR can potentially both give people positive emotional experiences contributing to their overall well-being and give researchers a way to study these profound emotional experiences in a more controlled environment. Through a design refinement process, we explored the potential influence of the "set and setting''--one's mindset and the physical and social environment--when transitioning people into and out of VR designed to support profound emotional experiences. We present our findings from a design refinement session and a case study exploring how set and setting may support the profound emotional experience of awe. We discuss common themes in user experience and trends of awe-related behavioural and introspective measures. Our results contribute to the discourse around the role of the design of set and setting in overall user experience.
There has been a great deal of research regarding the ways that people conceptualize and interact with places they call "home." This work has been extended to virtual reality primarily in the context of design tools. Here, we explore the idea of a hybrid virtual-physical home that uses virtual space to supplement an existing physical home. We identify variation in the spatial context of place attachment to homes. A user study (N = 25) revealed the expectations and needs these groups have for virtual home spaces, including security, familiarity, and community. We prototyped and playtested three virtual rooms, and identified design features that supported feelings of home. Finally, we present challenges to designing home-like VR environments that can shape future research in this area. As virtual reality grows increasingly accessible, these findings will inform the design of virtual spaces.
This paper presents an exploration of play design as a relational strategy to intensify affective encounters during an art museum visit. Theoretically, the paper presents a foundation emphasising the relational aspects of designing playful museum experiences. Based on a detailed and contextual analysis of a mobile web app entitled 'Never let me go', designed to be used in art museums, we show how the app and infrastructure catalysed affective encounters and put the relations between the players, the architecture and the exhibited artworks into motion. In our analysis, we highlight four ways through which the players' experiences were intensified. Finally, we discuss the potential and concerns arising from working with relational play strategies in the design of affectively engaging museum experiences, emphasising emergence, intimacy, ambiguity and trust as key elements.
When the collaboration between humans and machines happens in public, the audience can face difficulties in distinguishing the actual human contribution from the contribution of autonomous processes. In music concerts involving digital interfaces doubts about the performer's contribution can drastically hinder the audience interest. The disappearing of the direct physical link between actions and effects is one of the reasons of this confusion. Consequently both artists and researchers have explored techniques to augment the experience of spectators. However their respective impact on the multiple aspects of audience experience has not yet been formally compared. In this controlled study, we compare two techniques : pre-performance explanations and visual augmentations. Despite contradictory results on comprehension tasks, we show that contrary to pre-performance explanations, visual augmentations improve the audience experience, increase their subjective comprehension and restore the trust in performers by reversing the doubt in their favour.
Many museums have begun to use mobile devices to provide interactive content to visitors. However, such devices can also easily distract visitors, drawing their attention away from the exhibits. In this pictorial, we show the steps in designing Scienscope-a hand-held mediation device that can be used as a stethoscope to explore additional information hidden within exhibits at close range. As Scienscope hovers on authentic objects, it provides digital content and audio-haptic feedback, reinforcing the visitors' exploratory behaviors. After interviewing museum experts and bodystorming the museum space, we followed an iterative design process using low-fi prototyping to explore the users' experience. Three application scenarios were devised to show how Scienscope can be used for different types of exhibits. We discussed how visitors respond to and explore hidden information about exhibits at close range, which can be helpful for museum curators and designers.
In this pictorial, we investigate how a virtual collection can put down its roots in a physical space and integrate into the local community. We present PLACED, a place-centric digital service that supports participation and community-production of knowledge in library events. We illustrate how PLACED has been deployed and used at a local public library over a six-month period. We examine the community-produced virtual collection that grew out of this library event with a focus on its placeness.
Suburbs of Istanbul is a web-based interactive documentary project that examines the identity of suburban neighborhoods in Istanbul through the participation of its residents via online submission of their visual and written stories. Public participation also led the design process and helped prototype the interfaces of this non-linear documentary. This project aims to contribute to the field of interactive documentary and non-linear storytelling by integrating participatory design techniques in the prototyping process of documentary interfaces. Involving public both as content providers and as active decision makers in design process lead to a more genuine outcome with a human-centered approach. This project also intends to create an interactive experience to provide a greater insight into rapidly changing lifestyles of Turkish people, to provide a global context to the stories presented, and to generate widespread awareness of issues surrounding suburban lifestyles across the world.
Harassment, especially of marginalized individuals, on networked gaming and social media platforms has been identified as a significant issue, yet few HCI practitioners have attempted to create interventions tackling toxicity online. Aligning ourselves with the growing cohort of design activists, we present a case study of the GLHF pledge, an interactive public awareness campaign promoting positivity in video game live streaming. We discuss the design and deployment of a community-driven moderation intervention for GLHF, intended to empower the inclusive communities emerging on Twitch. After offering a preliminary report on the effects we have observed based on the more than 370,000 gamers who have participated to date, the paper concludes with a reflection on the challenges and opportunities of using design activism to positively intervene in large-scale media platforms.
Community engagements are qualitative processes that make use of participants local knowledge for democratic decision-making, but often exclude participants from data analysis and dissemination. This can mean that they are left feeling that their voice is not properly represented in the final output. This paper presents a digital community engagement process, TalkFutures, that actively involves participants in the production, distributed analysis and summarization of qualitative data. The design of TalkFutures was explored through a five-week deployment with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) as part of a consultation designed to inform future strategy. Our analysis of deployment metrics and post-deployment interviews outline how TalkFutures: (i) increased modes of participation across the qualitative workflow; (ii) reduced barriers to participation; and (iii) improved representation in the engagement processes.
As technologies become pervasive, so does participation in memory making. But in contested environments and discourses, certain voices are rarely included in public memory. In this paper, we explore how everyday postcolonial memories of Namibian youth engaged the wider public into a dialogue revisiting narrative of the past in order to explore alternative futures. Voices of the youth were amplified through an experimental participatory public exhibition leveraging interactive technologies. The exhibition resulted from collaborative memory making with marginalised voices, highlighting the role of youth as agents for change in postcolonial Namibia. Experiences from the exhibition showed how meaningful dialogues and interactions between museum audiences, interactive installations and the youth, created new perspectives on postcolonialism, and how exploring everyday memories and materials from the past may contribute to creating inclusive futures. We conclude that new forms of dialogic engagements are created through 'blurred boundaries' between people, their collective memories and technologies.
This paper presents GeoPact, an assembly of technological objects that materialises location-aware smart contracts using internet of things and digital ledger technologies. Such contracts may facilitate the creation of distributed systems and services for transport and logistics that are locally constructed and adaptable, thus supporting specific community needs and sustainable objectives. However the technological infrastructures that underpin these systems are complex, making it difficult to engage publics in design processes. GeoPact grounds infrastructure in relatable physical activities, that are linked with holistic views of the system, and creates new experiences for public engagement. In these activities participants were invited to roleplay as couriers, and to progress through delivery scenarios which were governed by smart contracts. Participants and spectators were then encouraged to discuss their reactions, concerns and ideas. This paper illustrates the GeoPact assembly and reflects on our engagement activities.
Mobile devices are fast becoming an integral part of family life. While mobile technology provides constant connectivity to a world outside the home, it inevitably disrupts family dynamics and the social notion of being together. In this paper, we explore "non-use" of mobile technology in a family setting. To do this, we designed the Pup-Lock provotype, a design provocation intended to challenge established expectations and practices around mobile device use at home. We report on a five-week in-depth study of using Pup-Lock with three families reflecting on their mobile device usage and their experience of non-use. Our findings illustrate how mobile use shapes social expectations and how over-use creates tensions in families. We contribute by showing how provoking non-use through design results in desirable and meaningful ways to increase family interaction. We discuss implications of designing for non-use to challenge established domestic practices around technology use.
UbiComp has been envisioned to bring about a future dominated by calm computing technologies making our everyday lives ever more convenient. Yet the same vision has also attracted criticism for encouraging a solitary and passive lifestyle. The aim of this paper is to explore and elaborate these tensions further by examining the human values surrounding future domestic UbiComp solutions. Drawing on envisioning and contravisioning, we probe members of the public (N=28) through the presentation and focus group discussion of two contrasting animated video scenarios, where one is inspired by 'calm' and the other by 'engaging' visions of future UbiComp technology. By analysing the reasoning of our participants, we identify and elaborate a number of relevant values involved in balancing the two perspectives. In conclusion, we articulate practically applicable takeaways in the form of a set of key design questions and challenges.
The increasingly widespread use of 'smart' devices has raised multifarious ethical concerns regarding their use in domestic spaces. Previous work examining such ethical dimensions has typically either involved empirical studies of concerns raised by specific devices and use contexts, or alternatively expounded on abstract concepts like autonomy, privacy or trust in relation to 'smart homes' in general. This paper attempts to bridge these approaches by asking what features of smart devices users consider as rendering them 'smart' and how these relate to ethical concerns. Through a multimethod investigation including surveys with smart device users (n=120) and semi-structured interviews (n=15), we identify and describe eight types of smartness and explore how they engender a variety of ethical concerns including privacy, autonomy, and disruption of the social order. We argue that this middle ground, between concerns arising from particular devices and more abstract ethical concepts, can better anticipate potential ethical concerns regarding smart devices.
Gesture elicitation studies represent a popular and resourceful method in HCI to inform the design of intuitive gesture commands, reflective of end-users' behavior, for controlling all kinds of interactive devices, applications, and systems. In the last ten years, an impressive body of work has been published on this topic, disseminating useful design knowledge regarding users' preferences for finger, hand, wrist, arm, head, leg, foot, and whole-body gestures. In this paper, we deliver a systematic literature review of this large body of work by summarizing the characteristics and findings ofN=216gesture elicitation studies subsuming 5,458 participants, 3,625 referents, and 148,340 elicited gestures. We highlight the descriptive, comparative, and generative virtues of our examination to provide practitioners with an effective method to (i) understand how new gesture elicitation studies position in the literature; (ii) compare studies from different authors; and (iii) identify opportunities for new research. We make our large corpus of papers accessible online as a Zotero group library at https://www.zotero.org/groups/2132650/gesture_elicitation_studies.
Cycling offers significant health and environmental benefits, but safety remains a critical issue. We need better tools and design processes to develop on-bicycle notification interfaces, for example, for hazard warnings, and to overcome design challenges associated with the cycling context. We present a physical computing toolkit that supports the rapid exploration and co-design of on-bicycle interfaces. Physical plug-and-play interaction modules controlled by an orchestration interface allow participants to explore different tangible and ambient interaction approaches on a budget cycling simulator. The toolkit was assessed by analysing video recordings of two group design workshops (N=8) and twelve individual design sessions (N=12). Our results show that the toolkit enabled flexible transitions between ideation and out-of-the-box thinking, prototyping, and immediate evaluation. We offer insights on how to design physical computing toolkits that offer low-cost, 'good enough' simulation while allowing for free and safe exploration of on-bicycle notification interfaces.
Recently, people prefer to read books via a combination of formats - E-Books along with printed books. We conducted a scoping survey and a lab-study which informed various inhibiting factors associated with switching between formats to conveniently use multiple formats. To improve the switching experience, we present Digital Bookmark that synchronises the current page location digitally between both printed and e-books. The page number of the printed book is electronically read using a conductive tag and transmitted to the e-book via the internet. The current location on the e-book is converted to the corresponding page number of the printed book and presented on the display of the Digital Bookmark. We present the results of a controlled lab-study to assess the parameters of switching between printed and electronic books. The initial feedback from a local reading group suggests that our Digital Bookmark would encourage multi-format reading and improve their user experience.
Computer-supported digital-physical tutorial systems have been widely used in the field of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) education for their advances in conveying multimodal contents. However, there is limited work in comparing strengths and weaknesses of the teaching effects between the human teachers and the non-human tutorial systems in ICH education. In this paper, we designed an introductory course and presented BatikGuide, a tangible tutorial system that provides multimodal instructions on Batik art and real-time evaluations. Followed by, we conducted a comparative experiment and analyzed the data collected from the quantitative scales, observation, and semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there is no obvious disparity between BatikGuide and the human teacher. Although the human teacher could have better performance in professional instructions, BatikGuide remains the potential in stimulating learning motivation, large-scale replication, and public dissemination. According to these findings, we discussed the prospects of computer-based systems in ICH education and preservation.
This pictorial presents a design investigation at the intersection of paper and computer vision for tangible interfaces. Through this exploration, we uncovered various characteristics of paper that connect tangible interactions with concealing and revealing printed fiducial markers for detection-particularly through the affordances of paper craft and fiber. We illustrate a variety of paper structures that construct and deconstruct fiducial markers. We also demonstrate how these structures enable untethered functional physical inputs, such as push buttons and sliders. We showcase four proposals that extend these material insights into tangible interface applications, including interactive data physicalizations and functional paper prototypes. Furthermore, we continue the legacy of pictorials by exposing fabrication drawings for others to engage with this work at a more practical level.
In this pictorial, we present two different tangible interaction designs that enable managing of wireless connections between devices in a smart home environment. One design (Interaction Tile) utilizes a centralized approach based on a high level of semantic abstraction. The other design (Nodes) employs a distributed and localized approached building on laws of grouping from Gestalt psychology. These works were previously used for a comparative study to develop insights into the different mental models users developed, while using these designs. In this pictorial, we focus on the interactive qualities of the two designs and we propose a way to invite the reader to actively and physically engage with the pages of this publication. The reader is asked to print the pages of this pictorial and to engage in folding sequences on particular pages in order to actively engage with the different ways of interacting between the two different designs.
Robots sometimes face hardware and algorithmic challenges that exceed their capabilities, e.g., an armless robot pressing an elevator button. Previous work suggests that rather than augmenting the robot capabilities, sometimes robots can simply ask for help. A central contribution of this paper is the discovery of how people's helping behaviors vary within local microcultures, i.e., shared patterns of behaviors and norms linked to local atmospheric conditions and situations. Our methods combine techniques from both social robotics research and ethnography to investigate how people's helping behaviors toward robots vary across six cafes on a single college campus. We deploy a simple robot to request help ordering items, analyzing the 268 interaction instances to find significant variations in both help and care behaviors toward the robot. Microcultural and situational factors influence this help, motivating the inclusion of cultural criteria into the behavioral predictions of human-robot interaction systems.
Prior psychology studies have shown that eating ice cream increases happiness, while human-computer interaction work has shown that interactive technology can enrich the eating experience. We explore the opportunity to combine these two through WeScream!, a playful social gustosonic system we designed-social gustosonic referring to the link between the acts of eating and listening as part of a social multisensory experience. WeScream! consists of two interdependent ice-cream cones that allow users to interact with musical sounds generated through the act of eating ice cream together. We report on an in-the-wild study that highlights how our system facilitated a "hard fun" experience through eating together, increased participants' awareness of relatedness, and drew shared attention to the ice cream's taste via increased face-to-face interaction. Drawing on these study insights, we also present three design tactics to guide designers in designing future social gustosonic experiences. Ultimately, we aim to contribute to a playful future of social eating experiences, supporting people in enjoying eating together.
Interactions with food are complex, integrating rich multisensory experiences within emotionally meaningful social contexts. Yet, the opportunities for food as material resource for emotional communication have been less explored. We describe a two-month project with 5 couples centered on the co-design of personalized flavors for emotional communication. These were experienced through a three-day preliminary study involving a 3D food printer in participants' homes. We discuss the value of our findings indicating preferences for both remembered and imagined positive flavors and their integration in focal intimacy practices to support emotional coregulation. We also discuss material food probes and their value for exploring and inspiring both design-with, and design-around food.
In this pictorial, we turn to culture and traditions to present an annotated portfolio of play-food potentials, i.e. interesting design qualities and/or interaction mechanisms that could help promote playful and social engagement in food practices. Our portfolio emerged from a one-day workshop where we played with and analyzed a collection of 27 food traditions from diverse cultural backgrounds and historical periods. We highlight play forms and experiential textures that are underexplored in Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research. Our contribution is intended to inspire designers to broaden the palette of play experiences and emotions embraced in HFI.
Digital technology has become a frequent companion of daily food practices, shaping the ways we produce, consume, and interact with food. Smart kitchenware, diet tracking apps, and other techno-solutions carry promise for healthy and sustainable food futures but are often problematic in their impact on food cultures. We conducted four Human-Food Interaction (HFI) workshops to reflect on and anticipate food-tech issues, using experimental food design co-creation as our primary method. At the workshops, food and food practices served as the central research theme and accessible starting point to engage stakeholders and explore values, desires, and imaginaries associated with food-tech. Drawing on these explorations, we discuss diverse roles that experimental design co-creation, performed with and around food, can play in supporting critical, interdisciplinary HFI inquiries. Our findings will appeal to design researchers interested in food as a research theme or as a tangible (and compostable!) design material affording diverse co-creative engagements.
People new to making and makerspaces often struggle with identifying what tools are available and where they are, understanding how to operate the tools, and predicting how their decisions will affect their final product. From literature on novices and our interviews with expert makers, we identified situation awareness support as one possible way to address some of the challenges faced by novices. We present a set of design goals intended to scaffold situation awareness in a makerspace, and MakeAware, a prototype system we implemented based on those design goals. MakeAware provides a combination of environmental cues, information about the project process, and background knowledge. In a preliminary evaluation, we found MakeAware can help novices make conscious choices during a project and put more emphasis on planning, thereby exhibiting traits associated with having situation awareness while making.
Much research has shown the potential of affective interfaces for reflection on, and understanding of bodily responses. Yet, people find it difficult to engage with, and understand their biodata which they have limited prior experience with. Building on affective interfaces and material-centered design, we developed ThermoPixels, a toolkit including thermochromic and heating materials, as well as galvanic skin response sensors for creating representations of physiological arousal. Within 10 workshops, 20 users with no expertise in biosensors or thermochromic materials created personalized representations of physiological arousal and its real-time changes using the toolkit. We report on participants' material exploration, their experience of creating shapes and the use of colors for emotional awareness and regulation. We discuss embodied exploration and creative expression, the value of technology in emotion regulation and its social context, and the importance of understanding material limitations for affective sense-making.
Computational handweaving combines the repeatable precision of digital fabrication with relatively high production demands of the user: a weaver must be physically engaged with the system to enact a pattern, line by line, into a fabric. Rather than approaching co-presence and repetitive labor as a negative aspect of design, we look to current practices in procedural generation (most commonly used in game design and screen-based new media art) to understand how designers can create room for suprise and emergent phenomena within systems of precision and constraint. We developed three designs for blending real-time input with predetermined pattern features. These include: using camera imagery sampled at weaving time; a 1:1 scale tool for composing patterns on the loom; and a live "Twitch'' stream where spectators determine the woven pattern. We discuss how experiential qualities of the systems led to different balances of underdetermination in procedural generation as well as how such an approach might help us think beyond an artifact/experience dichotomy in fabrication.
Punch needle embroidery is a unique type of embroidery that uses loops of threads to create designs. Technology for punch needle embroidery ranges from popular handheld manual tools to high-cost industrial tufting machines. Computer-controlled punch needle fabrication tools remain out-of-reach for most practitioners. In this work, we describe how a low-cost X-Y plotter can be repurposed to support punch needle embroidery fabrication. By adding easy-to-make physical accessories coupled with a novel software toolkit, we support the production of delicate and precise punch needle embroideries with minimal manual labor. After examining and evaluating the potential and challenges of converting X-Y plotters into punch needle embroidery fabricators, we propose design and fabrication guidelines that are specific to plotter-based punch needle embroideries. We demonstrate how this novel fabrication approach enables the production of a wide range of artifacts and textures.
Women can face barriers to participation in universal makerspace environments and are consequently underrepresented within them. Further, women have historically been excluded from learning and working with particular types of materials, such as wood. To explore how we might address these inequalities in regards to both access to makerspaces and to diverse materials, we present the wooden quilt probe. Through this probe we aimed to 1) create a makerspace environment specifically for women where they could engage with materials and tools traditionally found in more male-dominated craft environments, and 2) facilitate the sharing of stories and experiences with other women within the community center where this work took place. We contribute a rich understanding of the stories and experiences of women from the community center, and discuss the implications of the work for Interaction Design: how designers can contribute towards diversifying makerspace environments that enable women's participation within them, the benefits of intertwining storytelling and making, and the boundaries around sharing personal narratives.
Hackathon formats have been praised for their potential for promoting innovative thinking and making in a short time-frame. For this reason, hackathons have also been embraced by many researchers who use hackathons as part of their research in various ways. Through an extensive review of 381 publications published during a 10 year time span, we document the multiple ways in which hackathons are embraced and used by researchers The paper contributes to a better understanding of hackathons as part of research by providing a broad overview as a resource for researchers. We identify three main motivations for using hackathons as part of research: 1) Structuring learning, 2) structuring processes, and 3) enabling participation. For each of the motivations, we identify research with hackathons, and research on hackathons as two main categories. Drawing on several examples from the review we discuss benefits and challenges of using hackathons as part of research.
Inspired by the Bauhaus material sensory training, we examine the role that texture plays in contemporary design workflows. To do this, we prepare a prototype texture scanning device that allows near real-time sampling of physical textures at microscopic scale. Its implementation as a low-cost, portable, open-source device is first described. Next and through this tool, we examine the value and opportunities created by incorporating 3D textures into design workflows. To do this, we present a series of case studies of scanned materials, and discuss the fidelity of the textures produced, and its rendering of materiality. This explores both typical (wood, fibers) and atypical (bioplastics, state changes) materials. Additionally, three expert users examine these cases and reflect on potential opportunities for material inquiry enabled by this tool. Finally, we discuss how this tool might augment design processes and reintroduce material sensibility training, similar to that of the Bauhaus sensory training.
People increasingly access cross-device applications from their smartphones while on the go. Yet, they do not fully use the mobile versions for complex tasks, preferring the desktop version of the same application. We conducted a survey (N=77) to identify challenges when switching back and forth between devices. We discovered significant cross-device learnability issues, including that users often find exploring the mobile version frustrating, which leads to prematurely giving up on using the mobile version. Based on the findings, we created four design concepts as video prototypes to explore how to support cross-device learnability. The concepts vary in four key dimensions: the device involved, automation, temporality, and learning approach. Interviews (N=20) probing the design concepts identified individual differences affecting cross-device learning preferences, and that users are more motivated to use cross-device applications when offered the right cross-device learnability support. We conclude with future design directions for supporting seamless cross-device learnability.
Teachers' response to the real-time needs of diverse learners in the classroom is important for each learner's success. Teachers who give differentiated instruction (DI) provide pertinent support to each student and acknowledge their differences in learning style and pace. However, due to the already complex and intensive routines in classrooms, it is demanding and time-consuming for teachers to implement DI on-the-spot. This study aims to explore how to ease teachers' classroom differentiation by enabling effortless, low-threshold student-teacher communications through a peripheral interactive system. Namely, we present a six-week study, in which we iteratively co-designed and field-tested interaction solutions with eight school teachers, using a set of distributed, interactive LED-objects (the 'FireFlies' platform). By connecting our findings to the theories of DI, we contribute empirical knowledge about the advantages and limitations of a peripheral interactive system in supporting DI. Taken together, we summarize concrete opportunities and recommendations for future design.
A number of computing departments have adapted studio-based pedagogy for teaching Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to help students develop creative design skills. These efforts have shown promise, however, some challenges that emerge when integrating studio-based pedagogy into computing programs have been neglected by researchers. This research focuses on these challenges in the implementation and evaluation of a studio-based approach integrated into three HCI-related courses. This study is based on 6 classes, 44 interviews with students, observations, and interviews with members of the teaching team. Findings supported many positive outcomes from previous studio-based implementations. Nevertheless, students felt the change in pedagogy frustrating and it may have hindered their creativity, motivation, and engagement. This paper highlights these conflicting narratives, comparing computing culture with studio-based pedagogy. We conclude with considerations for future implementations.
Feedback is a key element of project-based learning, but only if students reflect on and learn from the feedback they receive. Students often struggle to deeply engage with feedback, whether due to lack of confidence, time, or skill. This work seeks to identify challenges that make reflecting on feedback difficult for students, and to design possible solutions for supporting reflection. Through observing two university game design courses, our research found that without concrete reflection strategies, students tended to be attracted to feedback that looks useful, but does not necessarily them move forward. When we introduced three different reflection scaffolds to support students, we found that the most effective approach promoted interactive learning by allowing time for self-reflection before team reflection, offering time limits, providing activities for feedback prioritization, helping teams align their goals, and equalizing team member participation. We present design guidelines for future systems to support reflection on feedback.
Learning to use a learning management system (LMS) can often be complex and challenging for instructors who have little time to explore the application interface. We ran formative interviews (N=10) suggesting that instructors often prefer to consult colleagues to seek examples of customizations and their explanations. Based on our findings, we designed and developed Customizer, an in-context example-based customization sharing platform that runs atop a widely-used LMS and facilitates discovery of relevant customizations shared by peers. Customizer allows instructors to experiment with shared customizations in familiar contexts by copying their course content into on-the-fly testing environments, minimizing any risk of breaking their live course setups. Our usability evaluation (N=10) showed that most users found Customizer intuitive and useful, and that its exploratory interface was helpful in a variety of use cases. Furthermore, many participants saw potential for Customizer to improve their workflows in other applications beyond educational contexts.
Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are making remarkable achievements even in creative fields such as aesthetics. However, whether those outside the machine learning (ML) community can sufficiently interpret or agree with their results, especially in such highly subjective domains, is being questioned. In this paper, we try to understand how different user communities reason about AI algorithm results in subjective domains. We designed AI Mirror, a research probe that tells users the algorithmically predicted aesthetic scores of photographs. We conducted a user study of the system with 18 participants from three different groups: AI/ML experts, domain experts (photographers), and general public members. They performed tasks consisting of taking photos and reasoning about AI Mirror's prediction algorithm with think-aloud sessions, surveys, and interviews. The results showed the following: (1) Users understood the AI using their own group-specific expertise; (2) Users employed various strategies to close the gap between their judgments and AI predictions overtime; (3) The difference between users' thoughts and AI pre-dictions was negatively related with users' perceptions of the AI's interpretability and reasonability. We also discuss design considerations for AI-infused systems in subjective domains.
Machine teaching (MT) is an emerging field that studies non-machine learning (ML) experts incrementally building semantic ML models in efficient ways. While MT focuses on the types of knowledge a human teacher provides a machine learner, not much is known about how people perform or can be supported in this essential task of identifying and expressing useful knowledge. We refer to this process as knowledge decomposition. To address the challenges of this type of Human-AI collaboration, we seek to build foundational frameworks for understanding and supporting knowledge decomposition. We present results of a study investigating what types of knowledge people teach, what cognitive processes they use, and what challenges they encounter when teaching a learner to classify text documents. From our observations, we introduce design opportunities for new tools to support knowledge decomposition. Our findings carry implications for applying the benefits of knowledge decomposition to MT and ML.
Interactive reinforcement learning (RL) has been successfully used in various applications in different fields, which has also motivated HCI researchers to contribute in this area. In this paper, we survey interactive RL to empower human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers with the technical background in RL needed to design new interaction techniques and propose new applications. We elucidate the roles played by HCI researchers in interactive RL, identifying ideas and promising research directions. Furthermore, we propose generic design principles that will provide researchers with a guide to effectively implement interactive RL applications.
The increased use of machine learning (ML) in society raises questions of how ethical dilemmas inherent in computational artefacts can be made understandable and explorable for students. To investigate this, we developed a card-based design workshop that allows students to reflect on ethical dilemmas by designing their own ML applications. The workshop was developed in an iterative process engaging four high school classrooms with students aged 16-20. We found that scaffolding students in designing meaningful ML systems served to qualify their ethical reflections. Further students' design processes allowed them to engage with the ethical dilemmas and to tie these to the properties of the technology and to their design decisions. We suggest seeing technology-close discussions about ethics as a goal in design processes, and prototyping as a means to ground these discussions in students' own design decisions, and we contribute a workshop format and design artefacts that allow for this.
Object detection is a key application of machine learning. Currently, these detector models rely on deep networks that offer model builders limited agency over model construction, refinement and maintenance. Human-centered approaches to address these issues explore the exchange of knowledge between a human-in-the-loop and a learning system. This exchange, mediated through a teaching language, is often restricted to the specification of labels and constrains user expressiveness communicating other forms of knowledge to the system. We propose and assess an expressive teaching language for specifying object detectors which includes constructs such as concepts and relationships. From a formative study, we identified language building blocks and articulated design goals for creating interactive experiences in teaching object detection. We applied these goals through a design probe that highlighted further research questions and a set of design takeaways.
As artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are more and more integrated into everyday lives, both scholarly and popular discourses on AI's often revolve around charting the various risks that may be associated with them. The manner and magnitude of risk that various researchers identify and foresee varies; however, what is common between them is, undoubtedly, the concept of risk itself. This concept, we argue, has been largely taken for granted by the fields involved in the research on AI's; in other words, "risk" has been employed with an everyday sensibility without due critical examination. In this paper, we address risk as a concept directly, by examining interdisciplinary theories and literatures on risk to discuss examples of AI technologies. Through this work, we aim to begin a critical discussion of the importance of theorising risk within design research and practice, and within the development of emerging technologies.
Artificial intelligence algorithms have been used to enhance a wide variety of products and services, including assisting human decision making in high-stake contexts. However, these algorithms are complex and have trade-offs, notably between prediction accuracy and fairness to population subgroups. This makes it hard for designers to understand algorithms and design products or services in a way that respects users' goals, values, and needs. We proposed a method to help designers and users explore algorithms, visualize their trade-offs, and select algorithms with trade-offs consistent with their goals and needs. We evaluated our method on the problem of predicting criminal defendants' likelihood to re-offend through (i) a large-scale Amazon Mechanical Turk experiment, and (ii) in-depth interviews with domain experts. Our evaluations show that our method can help designers and users of these systems better understand and navigate algorithmic trade-offs. This paper contributes a new way of providing designers the ability to understand and control the outcomes of algorithmic systems they are creating.
Research at the intersection of technology and sustainability is increasing across disciplines. Virtual reality is one technology used to address social issues, though less work has explored how immersive environments might impact a viewer's impression of complex environmental issues like sustainability.
SCP in 360°: Sustainable Consumption and Production in 360 Degrees is a series of 360° videos aiming to make sustainable consumption and production understandable and engaging to a wider audience. In this paper, we describe the context and production of these videos, report on the visitor study conducted during the videos' exhibition, and discuss the specifics of using 360° video for communicating sustainability and the broader implications for other 360° video projects and sustainability-focused interactive media. In contrast to research on empathy in virtual reality, our study suggests that 360° video supports participants in feeling compassion towards the situations viewed and understanding the context and complexity of sustainability solutions.
Information systems increasingly shape our knowledge of crises such as disasters and climate change. While these tools improve our capacity to understand, prepare for, and mitigate such challenges, critical questions are being raised about how their design shapes public imagination of these problems and delimits potential solutions. Prior work in human-computer interaction (HCI) has pointed to art/science collaboration as one approach for helping to explore such questions. As an attempt to draw on this potential, our team designed and facilitated a 2-day "artathon" that brought together artists and scientists to create new works of art based on disaster and climate data. Reflecting on the artathon and its outcomes, we contribute two sets of findings. First, we articulate opportunities, suggested by the artwork, for expanding research and design in crisis informatics. Second, we offer suggestions for HCI researchers seeking to stage successful art/science collaborations or similar inter-disciplinary events.
While there is a strong relationship between climate change and human food consumption, it is challenging to understand the implications and impact from an individual perspective. The lack of a shared frame of reference, that allows people to compare their impact to others, limits awareness on this complex topic. To support group reflections and social comparison of the impact of people's food consumption on climate change, we designed Econundrum, a shared physical data sculpture that visualizes carbon emissions resulting from dietary choices of a small community. Our three-week field study demonstrates how Econundrum helped people (i) understand the climate impact of various food types, (ii) reflect on the environmental impact of their food choices; and (iii) discuss the relation between climate impact and food consumption with others. Our study shows how a shared physical data sculpture mediates a complex topic to a community by facilitating the social dynamics in context.
This paper introduces the Sustainable Prototyping Life Cycle for Digital Fabrication, an adaptation from the Life Cycle Assessment method that presents the environmental impact of digital fabrication in every phase of prototyping. The cycle has four phases: raw materials acquisition, manufacturing and distribution, use, and end of life. It presents designers as manufacturers of their own materials for digital fabrication, and bio-based materials are used as an alternative and sustainable prototyping material. We interviewed ten experts in digital fabrication and introduced the use of bio-based materials such as mycelium-composite for prototyping with digital fabrication.Using experts' reflections, we conducted a workshop about the environmental impact of prototyping with 22 design students. We reported their decisions on materials used for prototyping and their perception of using mycelium-composite within the Sustainable Prototyping Life Cycle. Our aim is to increase environmental awareness in prototyping and highlight the importance of designers' decision-making through the cycle.
Air pollution causes several million deaths every year. Increasing public awareness through the deployment of devices that sense air quality may be a promising step in addressing the problem; however, these wholly objective device measurements may not capture the nuanced and lived experiences people have with the air, which are often colored by perceptions, histories, imaginations, and the sociopolitical context in which people live. The gap between objective environmental realities and individuals' subjective experiences of the environment may make it difficult to form meaning from data, hindering the positive policy outcomes that they are intended to produce. To bridge this gap, we conducted a two-phase design fieldwork to obtain an empirical understanding of the rich contours of experiences people have with the air and outline design strategies in making air quality data meaningful.
Addressing societal problems is complex; little is known about which paths or approaches are successful. We discuss what is involved in knowing when and how and for whom change needs to occur, as well as the impact of doing so at scale-especially when novelty and academic contributions may be compromised. To this end, we present a 'scaling up' framework based on a societal project where we worked with multiple stakeholders to improve food waste recycling rates in a housing estate. We propose three main factors involved in scaling up: (i) 'the people,' through reimagining roles and relationships, (ii) 'the method,' requiring flexibility in design and research, and (iii) 'the impact,' informing new measures by handing over the evaluation. We reflect on the challenges, dilemmas, and successes encountered, as well as discuss the benefit of 'handing over' the evaluation process to gather scalable metrics based on economic modelling.
Distributed energy resources are expected to radically change the way energy is produced and distributed through decentralised generation and storage. Current distributed energy models tend to hide the complexity of these systems in order to improve ease of use, while restricting people's participation to predefined roles of passive users who can benefit from more reliable infrastructures, more competitive prices, and more access to sustainable energy. In this paper, we question these roles and present the Karma Kettle, an open-ended device that aims to explore perceptions of different levels of agency in distributed energy resources. A study of the Karma Kettle with 20 residents of a block of flats in the UK reveals strategies and values of these residents, the effectiveness of the Karma Kettle to inspire discussion on levels of agency, and how these systems could be designed to promote more participatory approaches in distributed energy systems.
Over a one-month period we ran an in-home study exploring the notions of frugality, resources conservation, and sufficiency amongst 40 urban and regional households across Australia. We used a Research-through-Design approach, adopting the design-led method of design research artefacts, which were all created from discarded items of household waste. What followed was an extremely rewarding but overwhelming time, which culminated in the return of 1,300 individual artefacts from our study participants. This pictorial illustrates and discusses our struggles to extract insights from this vast amount of data produced by this exploratory study and justify our findings. As such, this pictorial contains learnings from our experience deploying, receiving, sorting, and then analysing an overwhelming amount of design research artefacts to study everyday resource sufficiency in the home.
Autonomous driving enables new mobility concepts such as shared-autonomous services. Although significant re-search has been done on passenger-car interaction, work on passenger interaction with robo-taxis is still rare. In this paper, we tackle the question of how passengers experience robo-taxis as a service in real-life settings to inform the interaction design. We conducted a Wizard of Oz study with an electric vehicle where the driver was hidden from the passenger to simulate the service experience of a robo-taxi. 10 participants had the opportunity to use the simulated shared-autonomous service in real-life situations for one week. By the week's end, 33 rides were completed and recorded on video. Also, we flanked the study conducting interviews before and after with all participants. The findings provided insights into four design themes that could inform the service design of robo-taxis along the different stages including hailing, pick-up, travel, and drop-off.
Autonomous vehicles (AVs; SAE levels 4 and 5) develop rapidly, whereas appropriate methods for interface design and development for such driverless vehicles are still in their infancy. This paper presents a simple approach for context-based prototyping and evaluation of human-machine interfaces for (shared) AVs in public transportation. It demonstrates how to set up a lightweight immersive video-based AV simulator using real-world video and audio footage captured in urban traffic. In two user studies (n1 = 9; n2 = 31) we investigate presence perception and simulator sickness to provide initial evidence for the suitability of this cost-effective method. Furthermore, with the intent to increase presence perception and technology acceptance, we combine the AV simulator with a human actor imitating a passenger that gets on and off a shared AV ride.
Environmental cues influence our spatial behaviour when we explore unfamiliar spaces. Research particularly shows that the presence/actions of other people affects our navigation decisions. Here we examine how such social information can be integrated digitally into the environment to support navigation in indoor public spaces. We carried out a study (n=12) to explore how to represent traces of navigation behaviour. We compared 6 floor visualisations and examined how they affect participants' navigational choices. Results suggest that direct representations such as footprints are most informative. To investigate further how such visualisation could work in practice, we implemented an interactive floor system and used it as probe during one-to-one design sessions (n=26). We particularly focused on four design challenges: the overall visual representation, representation of multiple people, designing more prominent visualisations and the incorporation of non-identifying information. Our results provide insights for designers looking to develop history-enriched floor interfaces.
Recommender systems are widely integrated into our everyday activities. These intelligent systems succeed in learning the user's profile to recommend movies, music, news and more. However, for designing context-aware recommendations, new challenges emerge in predicting the situational needs of the user. We prototyped Ambient Wanderer, our personalised and contextualised Point-of-Interest (POI) recommender system and experimented it with new locals, people who have recently relocated to a city. Our key findings include: sudden breakdowns during urban exploration, trust issues with the recommendations from people unlike them, feeling bored as the trigger to POI search, intent to find free activities, information needs on areas-of-interest beyond points-of-interest and the demand to build a new social life. For each of these needs, we present the implications to design mobile recommendations for urban exploration.
This paper accounts for the design process of an interactive map to foster accessibility - understood as a dialogical process - to a rural place for visually impaired people (VIP). We deeply engaged with the two concerned communities, a small group of VIP and locals from the rural village, valuing mutual sensitization and continual attunements. Framed by a relational perspective on design, we envisioned the map as a change catalyst, an artefact that can encourage VIP to engage in exploring activities, enable locals to present their territory, and contribute to ongoing reflections about accessibility by triggering exchanges about walking activities. Here we describe how this process ended-up with an object characterized by its intersecting material qualities and its capacity for mutual appropriation. We discuss the concept of boundary object as an insightful descriptor of the produced artefact and the newly identified challenge of designing accessible maps as material interventions.
Game map interfaces provide an alternative perspective on the worlds players inhabit.compared to navigation applications popular in day-to-day life, game maps have different affordances to match players' situated goals. To contextualize and understand these differences and how they developed, we present a historical chronicle of game map interfaces. Starting from how games came to involve maps, we trace how maps are first separate from the game, becoming more and more integrated into play until converging in smartphone-style interfaces. We synthesize several game history texts with critical engagement with 123 key games to develop this map-focused chronicle, from which we highlight trends and opportunities for future map designs. Our work contributes a record of trends in game map interfaces that can serve as a source of reference and inspiration to game designers, digital physical-world map designers, and game scholars.
Social translucence theory argues that online collaboration systems should make contributors' activities visible to better achieve a common goal. Currently in medical crowdfunding sites, various non-monetary contributions integral to the success of a campaign, such as campaign promotions and offline support, are less visible than monetary contributions. Our work investigates ways to enrich social translucence in medical crowdfunding by aggregating and visualizing non-monetary contributions that reside outside of the current crowdfunding space. Three different styles of interactive visualizations were built and evaluated with medical crowdfunding beneficiaries and contributors. Our results reveal the perceived benefits and challenges of making the previously invisible non-monetary contributions visible using various design features in the visualizations. We discuss our findings based on the social translucence framework--visibility, awareness, and accountability--and suggest design guidelines for crowdfunding platform designers.
While depression is a mood disorder with significant societal impact, the experiences of people living with depression are yet not easy to access. HCI's tenet to understand users, particularly addressed by the empathic design approach, has prioritized verbal communication of such experiences. We introduce ManneqKit, a kinesthetic empathic design tool consisting of 15 cards with bodily postures and vignettes leveraging the nonverbal aspects of depression experiences. We report the co-design of ManneqKit with 10 therapists, its piloting with 4 therapists and 10 non-therapists, and evaluation through design workshops with 9 interaction designers and 3 therapists. Findings describe metaphorical descriptions of depression experiences and their postures, as well as cards' ability to elicit strong empathy. We discuss the value of these findings for interaction design in terms of novel empathic design tools capturing nonverbal qualities of lived experiences, support for richer understanding of vulnerable users experiencing depression, design ideation underpinned by ethical values, and the need to balance empathy with distancing for designers' wellbeing.
There has been a growing interest in designing interactive media experiences in residential dementia care. Although research in HCI and dementia have shown that person-centered design yields positive results, little is known about designing media experiences in shared care spaces. To investigate this, we designed AmbientEcho, an interactive system that offers bespoke and curated media content through different modalities. AmbientEcho thereby aims to provide enriching personal experiences in residential dementia care. A prototype of this design was evaluated in a real-life care setting. Data on residents' responses, the design's social role, and its use in practice were gathered through participant-observations, interviews, and a post-trial focus group. We found that a combined media approach triggered rich personal associations, facilitated revival of identity, and stimulated participation in shared experiences. Finally, we suggest designers should consider sensitive inclusion, adapted levels of interaction and variety in use when designing media interventions in dementia care.
Intensive Care Unit (ICU) professionals have to make lifesaving therapy decisions promptly under high stress and uncertainty. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) can improve the quality of healthcare by identifying complex statistical connections between patients' parameters and by rapidly presenting the statistically most promising treatment options to physicians. However, HCI aspects are rarely considered when developing CDSSs. This paper describes a field study conducted in three ICUs investigating how physicians and nurses form (volume) therapy decisions and monitor their success. Our findings reveal a continuous decision cycle in which nurses and physicians collaborate synchronously and asynchronously to provide optimal care. Furthermore, the desire to understand how a CDSS generated recommendations varies depending on the user's goals and other contextual factors such as workload. These findings show that CDSSs for ICUs need to (1) specifically facilitate collaboration and (2) support adaptation of the interface to both context and users.
Despite many advances, clinical decision support tools (DSTs) often suffer from implementation and acceptance problems in the actual clinical context. We suggest that considering psychological needs-based and embodied user experience theories in the design of DSTs could help to overcome these problems. To examine this idea, we iteratively developed a DST called Cassandra supporting anesthetic teams in crisis management, specifically focusing on psychological needs and fluent interaction with the social and physical environment. We preliminarily evaluated Cassandra in a medical simulation, requiring anesthetic teams to handle a crisis. Although not all features of Cassandra had the intended effect, the results indicated that interacting with Cassandra supported the fulfillment of the identified needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness and was seamlessly integrated into existing diagnostic processes. Considering user experience theories for the design of DSTs seems a promising way to overcome implementation and acceptance problems and eventually improve patient safety.
Most health technologies to support lifestyle changes after bariatric (weight-loss) surgery are aimed at the individual patient. However, lifestyle changes cannot be done in isolation, but are a co-responsibility between patient, Health Care Professionals (HCPs), and the social context; most dominantly the partner. We want to investigate the potential value of an intelligent ecosystem that is designed for this co-responsibility. We present a clinical trial following an explorative data-enabled approach. We deploy an ecosystem consisting of data trackers and personalized coaching interventions with six patients and their partners. Based on various use cases, we identify six ways in which designing for co-responsibility can bring value: by (1) identifying the right intervention, (2) assessing the effectiveness of the intervention, (3) allowing patients to seek support when needed, (4) awareness of co-responsibilities within the couple (5) helping the partner in understanding how to be of help, and (6) preventative care.
Hundreds of popular mobile apps today market their ties to mindfulness. What activities do these apps support and what benefits do they claim? How do mindfulness teachers, as domain experts, view these apps? We first conduct an exploratory review of 370 mindfulness-related apps on Google Play, finding that mindfulness is presented primarily as a tool for relaxation and stress reduction. We then interviewed 15 U.S. mindfulness teachers from the therapeutic, Buddhist, and Yogic traditions about their perspectives on these apps. Teachers expressed concern that apps that introduce mindfulness only as a tool for relaxation neglect its full potential. We draw upon the experiences of these teachers to suggest design implications for linking mindfulness with further contemplative practices like the cultivation of compassion. Our results also speak to the importance of coherence in design: that the metaphors and mechanisms of a technology align with the underlying principles it follows.
Many men stop exercising as they age, engage in risky behaviours such as alcohol misuse, are reluctant to admit to mental health problems, and avoid seeking help. Men are generally hard to reach for community health interventions. However, interventions run at football clubs have successfully engaged men and have led to positive health outcomes. Mobile health technology might similarly be designed to engage and encourage men via connections with football. This technology could be used to augment and extend community programs, or be used to target global fan bases. However, it is not clear if and how what attracts men to community interventions can translate to technology. In this paper we report a design study with 18 middle-age male participants exploring what men find important in football, and connections between football, health and technology. We present five design opportunities to guide and prompt further innovation in this area.
Autoethnographic and other first-person research methods are a topic of increasing interest in design and HCI. This focus parallels the boom in self-tracking and personal informatics, perhaps most intriguingly in the intersection of quantitative and qualitative data and the noticing of patterns in one's own life and everyday wellbeing. But how can design support this? One opportunity is for research probes, or tools, which enable forms of self-inquiry, by design researchers themselves, or others. In this paper-with the broad scope of healthier student sleep as a domain-we present a series of artifacts designed by undergraduates as tools to enable autoethnographic exploration, and detail how they have been used to investigate bedtime routines, personal scheduling of time, focus, sleep data, and sleeping in non-traditional places. We also reflect on the notion of combination autoethnographic 'kits' as a way forward for forms of self-inquiry.
This pictorial describes in detail the design, and multiple iterations, of PizzaBlock - a role-playing game and design workshop to introduce non-technical participants to decentralised identity management systems. We have so far played this game with six different audiences, with over one hundred participants - iterating the design of the artefacts and gameplay each time. In this pictorial, we reflect on this RtD project to unpack: a) How we designed artefacts and roleplay to explore decentralised technologies and networks; b) How we communicated the key challenges and parameters of a complex system, through the production of a playable, interactive, analogue representation of that technology; c) How we struck a balance between playful tangible gameplay and high-fidelity technical analogy; and d) How approaches like PizzaBlock invite engagement with complex infrastructures and can support more participatory approaches to their design.
As we design increasingly complex systems, we run up against fundamental limitations of human imagination. To support practice, it becomes essential to use authentic data and algorithms as design materials to augment designers' intuitions. Recent work has explored some dimensions of using data as a design material, suggesting the contours of a new space of design and prototyping methods. In this paper, we present Replay Enactments (REs, an extension of the User Enactments methods that uses data replay as a boundary object, making complex system behavior tangible to designers and stakeholders. We reflect on a set of case studies that have instantiated REs in diverse ways and discuss trade-offs between different ways of using data replays in design. We conclude by highlighting opportunities and challenges for future work.
We set out to explore the role of prototypes as instruments of knowledge for HCI research. We pursue an epistemological inquiry on 'how' prototypes can be used when users, designers and researchers work in common on the development of future technological objects. First, we offer critical commentary on prototypes as instruments of knowledge by engaging with existing literature. Under-explored themes are developed to argue for approaching prototypes as objects of desire. Desires are different from needs and requirements and ought to be considered more directly in research prototyping processes. We identify five roles for prototypes as objects of desire for research and articulate four seeding dynamics that govern exploration of future use. These are exemplified through analysis of two cases where groups of people were working in common around designing interactive objects. We conclude that prototypes as objects of desire allow exploration of 'yet-to-be-known' shared technology beyond needs and requirements.
In this paper, we extend the concept of annotated portfolios to include designs for new domains. Although annotated portfolios were intentionally left open to interpretation and appropriation, most of the published research that uses this method to articulate intermediate knowledge focuses on annotation strategies that abstract new knowledge about the qualities of interaction and about the design domain. We suggest that annotations can do more than pull towards concerns regarding abstraction and show that several not so very theoretical, but relevant findings can be achieved using other strategies. Two additional strategies are brought forward to illustrate this: a chronological design trajectory that shows the historical account of new domain explorations, and a design ecosystem strategy that aims to show how artefacts can work together. We apply all four strategies mentioned above and discuss how they contribute to revealing features of the design space for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.
Design research methods are increasingly used as ready-made recipes for success in a variety of fields and multidisciplinary teams. Yet as any tools, they shape the gaze, attitudes, and behaviors of designers. Moreover their generic nature tends to obscure the specific situations in which they were created. In reaction, grounding our work in adversarial design, we propose four tricky probes: believable design tools, which appear to be innocuous, but progressively engage designers in crossing boundaries of what should be acceptable. This is done by slowly derailing design research activities, leading to trigger reflection on the part of designers on their beliefs, practice, and the tools they use. Our probes raise issues at the intersection of design research and gender in urban service design, such as the use of pre-made algorithms to understand gendered patterns in urban movements.
Species-specific aesthetics is an important consideration for interaction designers working with animals. The paper explores the concept of species-specific aesthetics with particular reference to elephants. Applying existing aesthetic dimensions and design principles to the challenge of designing interactive enrichment for them, we show how the insights gained can inform more than human-centered design in different settings. We offer a multi-faceted, multi-sensory lens for examining an animal-centred aesthetic experience of technology.
Multi-species interfaces, where users consist of both human and non-human animals, continue to emerge in many application areas, such as zoos shared spaces between humans and domesticated animals. Within this, new instances of Canine-Computer Interaction are rapidly being developed, including applications that support assistance dogs in helping their handlers with disabilities, and interfaces that support human and dog bonding. Regardless of the specific application, many canine interfaces rely on a pressure-activated interaction for the canine input modality. We report on a two-phase study that explored the current practices of assistance dogs using pressure-activated switches (buttons) and aimed to understand canine experiences using different types of buttons. We discuss not only the practical design implications for designers developing canine interfaces, but also methodological findings in regard to conducting research with both canine and human participants. We aim to continue to extend design practices to include non-human animals as co-designers.
Acoustic sensing has been hailed as a game-changer for detecting furtive wildlife, but uptake has been constrained by the laborious process of reviewing resultant torrents of audio data. To inform the design of interactive interfaces for reviewing audio recordings, we explored how people interact with aural and visual media about birds. We observed how twelve participants with different levels of interest in birds engaged with vocalization recordings, visualizations of bird calls, photographs, and range maps of three species. By conducting thematic analysis, we identified a variety of Challenges of Exploration and Benefits of a Media Assortment. We contribute lessons for designing to Bridge Knowledge & Context and to Facilitate Long-term Engagement with audio in ways that are fun, accessible, and informative. We provide explicit guidance for designers to diversify how citizen scientists interact with nature through audio as they move from engagement to conservation action.
Animals can be negatively affected by wearable tracking devices, even those marketed as ?animal friendly' and increasingly used with companion animals, such as cats. To understand the wearer experience of cats fitted with popular GPS trackers, we measured the behavior of 13 feline participants while they were wearing the devices during a field study. The aim of our behavioral analysis was twofold: investigating potential signs of discomfort generated by the devices to evaluate the impact that such interventions have on cat wearers; identifying wearability flaws that might account for the observed impact and wearability requirements to improve the design of the devices. Based on our findings, we propose a set of requirements that should inform the design of trackers to afford better wearability and thus provide better wearer experience for cat wearers.
In creating digital technologies for animals, designers often seek to deploy and adapt human-centred techniques of interaction design. A significant challenge lies in enabling animals to play an active and generative role in the design process. This is of particular concern when the primary design objective is to address the behavioural and psychological needs of animal users. In collaboration with orangutans and human stakeholders at a zoo, we conducted co-design to create an interactive installation to enhance the orangutans' wellbeing. This paper presents the design journey undertaken and reflects on the challenges of designing with animals in a complex real-world setting. From this, we propose ways in which interaction design methods can be better adapted to working with animals by integrating qualitative and quantitative techniques drawn from the animal sciences. These reflections and proposals are relevant to researchers and practitioners investigating the design of animal-centred digital technologies.
This paper begins with an observation: that threat identification is an intrinsically speculative practice. It requires imagining possible futures. Drawing on methods from speculative design, this paper presents an improvisational role-playing game designed to help software developers identify security threats. It deploys this game with seven software developers, who used the game to successfully identify diverse threats in their software. The insights from this deployment motivate future work on both the game itself and on organizational accounts of security. I call on the design research community to continue to apply its methods and perspectives to computer security, locating threat identification itself, like all speculation, as a site of social and political power.
A major reason why people don't use security tools online is that they perceive them as difficult and challenging, resulting in the lack of self-efficacy. Previous research has looked at improving user security attitude and practices through a variety of interventions, including transformational games. These games, targeted at improving security attitude and promoting change through gameplay, offer a new perspective on cybersecurity education. In this research we present the design and evaluation of Hacked Time, a desktop game that uses an integrative approach that incorporates Bandura's self-efficacy design framework to improve player self-efficacy. Using a randomized control trial (n=178), we demonstrate that our game is effective in improving player's security attitude and self-efficacy for using cybersecurity tools. We discuss how our design pattern can serve as an exemplar to enhance player self-efficacy in other fields.
In recent years, cryptocurrencies have increasingly gained interest. The underlying technology, Blockchain, shifts the responsibility for securing assets to the end-user and requires them to manage their (private) keys. Little attention has been given to how cryptocurrency users handle the challenges of key management in practice and how they select the tools to do so. To close this gap, we conducted semi-structured interviews (N=10). Our thematic analysis revealed prominent themes surrounding motivation, risk assessment, and coin management tool usage in practice. We found that the choice of tools is driven by how users assess and balance the key risks that can lead to loss: the risk of (1) human error, (2) betrayal, and (3) malicious attacks. We derive a model, explaining how risk assessment and intended usage drive the decision which tools to use. Our work is complemented by discussing design implications for building systems for the crypto economy.
Online services collect an increasing amount of data about their users. Privacy policies are currently the only common way to inform users about the kinds of data collected, stored and processed by online services. Previous work showed that users do not read and understand privacy policies, due to their length, difficult language, and often non-prominent location. Embedding privacy-relevant information directly in the context of use could help users understand the privacy implications of using online services. We implemented Contextual Privacy Policies (CPPs) as a browser extension and provide it to the community to make privacy information accessible for end-users. We evaluated CPPs through a one-week deployment and in situ questionnaires as well as pre- and post-study interviews. We found that CPPs were well received by participants. The analysis revealed that provided information should be as compact as possible, be adjusted to user groups and enable users to take action.
This paper offers first-steps guidance towards the development of a methodology that embodies theoretical proposals for a fourth-wave, 'entanglement' approach to HCI. We propose the removal of technologies and the documenting of their absence as a method. Removal disrupts habitual relationships with our everyday technologies, revealing otherwise hidden knowledges. Removal as a method exemplifies that "you don't know what you've got till it's gone". We apply removal to the case of menstrual cycle tracking in two ways: literally through two autoethnographies, and hypothetically through semi-structured interviews. We show how this method especially facilitates emotional, embodied and cultural knowledge of the lived experience of self-tracking and we unpack some opportunities, implications and limitations in its use. Finally, we present how this method might be adopted by others and propose cases in which removal as a method might be applicable to study of a wider range of technologies beyond self-tracking.
We introduce DayClo, an interactive clock visualizing schedule data for supporting users to reflect and self-track themselves in their daily lives. DayClo is designed by applying the form and time representation method of analog clocks. It shows the user's upcoming schedules through the sequential movement of two clock hands with hidden LEDs and a display. We deployed DayClo in eight participants' working spaces for a month to explore how the design and its interaction could support their reflections on their scheduling practices. The findings revealed that DayClo supported users' casual access to the schedule data and motivated self-tracking of their plans. Moreover, the moving clock hands revealed the empty time of their schedules and helped to draw new plans for their implicit goal. Our findings suggest new opportunities for designing everyday objects as a medium of delivering and fostering spontaneous interaction with personal data for self-reflection.
Self-trackers reflect on their personal data to understand their behaviour and plan accordingly. Often, this reflection involves uncertainty, which can affect decision-making. To better understand the role of uncertainty, we conducted an interview study to comprehend how uncertainty influences reflection and the resulting actions. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the conventional role of uncertainty as a barrier, uncertainty also manifests as a trigger and facilitator to reflection. We discuss functionalities to alleviate the negative effects of uncertainty (e.g. incorporating users' expectations in self-tracking), and leverage its positive effects through activity reconstruction mechanisms.
Food-posting, a pervasive practice on social media platforms, opens a window for introspection on personal food intake, physical health, and mental well-being. Existing self-reflection tools on food intake usually require manual logging of dietary information and inadequately support retrospective reviews beyond the data. To facilitate in-depth, non-judgmental self-reflection on information hidden in food-posting, we propose a design to transform general food posts into "a postcard from a past food journey". The postcards are procedurally created from food posts, and encode nutritional values together with the user's emotional status extracted from photos and texts. After validating the visual design, we evaluate the auto-generated postcards with 20 participants to explore how they reflect on the data, context, action, and value subjects. Qualitative feedback indicates that our designs encourage users to review their physical and mental well-being differently from conventional visualization. We conclude by discussing issues identified with the non-judgmental postcard design.
Existing self-tracking devices have been criticized for perpetuating a dualist, rather than phenomenological, understanding of the self as a separated mind and body. In this paper we answer calls for a phenomenological approach to the design of self-tracking devices. Ambient Cycle is a menstrual cycle tracking device that provides a continuous display of data in the home through coloured light. Through its design and long-term deployment, we found that a phenomenological approach facilitated; 1. the documentation of a diversity in subjective experiences of the enigmatic menstrual cycle; 2. the tracking of positive as well as negative aspects of the menstrual cycle, which challenges wider understandings of the body in society, and 3. novel uses of self-tracked data. We also expand on existing uses of phenomenological theories within HCI to include those that address interactions with the insides of our bodies.
Leading companies in the wearables market have introduced different virtual reward systems to their products and services to increase user engagement and enhance playfulness. While existing studies report mixed views on the effectiveness of virtual rewards offered by activity trackers, we still have a limited understanding of people's lived experiences with virtual reward systems. A four-month diary-based autoethnography reflecting on the use of three popular activity trackers (i.e.,Fitbit, Apple Watch, and Google Fit) and their associated virtual reward systems, plus an online survey with 113 current users of the same activity trackers were conducted. Results provide rich insights into how users interact with virtual rewards in real-life, and how these impact people's engagement in physical exercise. A set of considerations to design user-centric virtual reward systems that provide more meaningful experiences to activity-tracker users are derived.
These days, whether the problem is climate change or boredom, there is an app for that. The rhetoric of problem and solution, accelerated by commercial needs and salvific tech gurus, implies that software can save the world. This paper wants to start a movement/rebellion against the ubiquitous equation of P(problem) + S(software) = S(solution) as a rational approach to the ailments of this world. We question the technological effort to "playfully" afford order and control to humans through the provision of computational rules. Instead, we propose an alternative approach: designing 'pataphysical software to address familiar but ultimately imaginary problems. Defined by poet Alfred Jarry, 'pataphysics is the science of imaginary problems. Adopting the methods of 'pataphysics, we have developed mobile applications that explore invented problems and provide no solutions for them. We demonstrate how such an approach allows us to ask design questions through an aesthetic 'pataphysical practice of software development.
We expand the critical scope of HCI by discussing features of Magical Realism, a body of literature with roots in Latin America but now global in scope. Through the discussion of our failures to treat the canon of Magical Realism as a resource for designing an augmented reality app for children we expand to consider how the world view of Magical Realist literature presents challenges for design and new critical perspectives particularly around temporality, techno-politics, and reality and presence. We conclude by asking what a truly Magical Realist design practice that resists moves to treat literature as a resource to be used preferring instead to approach is as a context of engagement.
We report on the outcomes of a hackathon organised around the themes of absurd musical interfaces, questionable sonic interactions and unworkable music designs. At the core of the project is the intention to explore absurd making as a way to support critical and disruptive design practices. We reflect on how surreal, nonsensical and fragile artefacts can be helpful to stretch and critique conventional ideas of what is useful and appropriate in technology research and development. After introducing both concepts and methods that shaped the event we present a selection of useless interfaces designed by the hackathon's attendees. These musical artefacts, and the considerations around them, are then discussed as a viable means for communicating both design concerns and future visions. We also consider two features identified as playing a crucial role within the event: the discovery of contradictions and the importance of context-based ingredients.
Design fiction has become so widely adopted that it regularly appears in contexts ranging from CEO speeches to dedicated tracks at academic conferences. However, evaluating this kind of work is difficult; it is not clear what good or bad design fiction is or what the judgment criteria should be. In this paper we assert that design fiction is a heterogeneous set of methods, and practices, able to produce a diversity of scholarly and design contributions. We argue locating these diverse practices under the single header of "design fiction" has resulted in epistemological confusion over the appropriate method of evaluation. We identify different traditions within the HCI literature-critical design; narratology and literary theory; studio-based design "crits"; user studies; scenarios and persona development; and thought experiments-to articulate a typology of evaluative frames. There is often a mismatch between the standards to which design fiction is held and the knowledge that speculative methods seek to produce. We argue that evaluating a given instance of design fiction requires us to properly select the right epistemological tool for the job.
The current trends related to 'smart cities' are bringing the cityscapes of movies such as Blade Runner and Cyberpunk 2077 closer to our immediate reality. The question of what will the cities of the future look like is at the heart of urban studies. In parallel, a similar question is posed by (trans)humanists about the future of humanity and its possible technological enhancements. However, (trans)humanity and future cities are defined in a bi-directional dependency. Therefore, we have to answer the questions of future humans and cities simultaneously. This paper maps several ways of interacting between transhuman communities and smart cities to understand their possible effects on governing, design and society at large resulting in a framework that will work as a cautionary tale and an inspirational blueprint for imagining future urbanity.
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster of 1986 inspired this pictorial, which weaves together a number of technologies to tell a story about life in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in the aftermath of the nuclear meltdown. The artifacts included here run the gamut from functional to speculative and focus on how humans, plants, and animals can cope with the challenges of living in a disturbed landscape. They are designed to inspire conversation about the larger world to which they belong. Grounding speculative design in Chernobyl invites us to revisit the relationship between technology and ecology in sites of exclusion and abandon. What happens if we return, or are forced to return, to these hitherto excluded sites? What is it like to live in the aftermath of a disaster whose invisible effects continue for thousands of years? What are some of the technologies that might be seen in such a world and how do they facilitate cohabitation between the humans, plants, and animals of the Zone, and radiation? These questions blur some of the boundaries that can sometimes become too rigid in design fictions, such as the fixed present vs. the flexible future, or diegetic vs. speculative vs. functional prototypes. Moreover, while the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is in many ways unique, Chernobyl is by no means the only Exclusion Zone. It is joined by a growing number of abandoned spaces, from shuttered reactors like Fukushima Daiichi, to nuclear waste sites like Hanford, US, and toxic e-waste sites like Agbogbloshie, Ghana. We propose that grounding speculations in such exclusion zones can contribute to more than human-centered design and post-humanist discourse.
The HCI community has a strong and growing interest in shape-changing interfaces (SCIs) that can offer dynamic affordance. In this context, there is an increasing need for HCI researchers and designers to form close relationships with disciplines such as robotics and material science in order to be able to truly harness the state-of-the-art in morphing technologies. To help these synergies arise, we presentMorphino: a card-based toolkit to inspire shape-changing interface designs. Our cards bring together a collection of morphing mechanisms already established in the multidisciplinary literature and illustrate them through familiar examples from nature. We begin by detailing the design of the cards, based on a review of shape-change in nature; then, report on a series of design sessions conducted to demonstrate their usefulness in generating new ideas and in helping end-users gain a better understanding of the possibilities for shape-changing materials.
Affordances is an important term in the field of Shape-Changing Interfaces (SCI). But the field is challenged by a multitude of vaguely defined concepts around affordances such as dynamic, spatial, or tactile affordances. In line with this, Alexander et al  recently pointed to lack of theory as one of the grand challenges for SCI. This paper proposes a re-analysis of Gibson for resolving the conceptual cacophony in the field of SCI. Essential to the ecological approach to affordances, is that perception is dynamic and people pick up information through exploring objects and environments over time. From this perspective, affordances of Shape-Changing Interfaces become a matter of providing Information - through the design - regarding a) the interfaces' ability to transform its shape and b) how movement suggests level of animacy. Through analyzing scholarly SCI prototypes, from this perspective, we provide an initial set of design strategies for affordances of shape-changing interfaces.
This paper presents an evaluation of DynaKnob: a dynamic rotary knob that uses the relationship between physical shape and haptic force feedback to provide feedback about its functionality. It has the ability to morph into four distinct shapes whilst providing dynamic haptic force feedback. We explore how shape change and haptic force feedback can improve interactions by evaluating the DynaKnob in terms of usability, user experience and performance. Additionally, we look at how interaction techniques are influenced by these modalities. Results indicate that multimodal cues provided by haptic force feedback and different shapes did not improve usability, since the visual feedback provided by the GUI dominated the evaluated context. However, both modalities had a positive effect on the user experience, and showed potential to improve the performance in terms of accuracy for non-visual interaction.
Year-round ultraviolet exposure silently causes skin damage that goes unnoticed until sunburn. Current personal wearables for monitoring UV exposure have not seen significant uptake, which may be attributed to their one-size-fits-all aesthetic or inapplicability to people with different skin tones. We present EcoPatches, inkjet-printable chemical patches that mediate a person's relationship with their environment by allowing them to create designs and formulations that resonate with them. Supporting human- and machine-interpretability for EcoPatches' visual changes means that users can glance at their EcoPatch during the day to see large exposure changes or take a picture of their EcoPatch with a smartphone app for more accurate and precise readings. We conducted an online survey to elicit visual design recommendations that support these features. We also evaluated both interpretation methods, finding that they achieved strong Pearson correlation coefficients with the \projectnames' known exposure levels (human: 0.79, app: 0.90).
Silicone is a transformative design material found within a variety of emerging HCI practices including shape-changing interfaces, soft robotics, and wearables. However, workflows for designing and fabricating silicone forms require a time-intensive mold-cast-cure pipeline that limits the experiential knowledge that can be gained from working directly with silicone. In this work, we conduct a material-centric exploration of silicone and develop designerly workflows for creating inflatable silicone bladders. We present Siloseam, a creative framework that streamlines a bladder design and fabrication process, collects tacit knowledge involved in recovering from errors, and introduces new workflows that reuse existing molds. A set of exemplar artifacts demonstrates an expanded repertoire of silicone forms that leverage various configurations of airtight seams to create playful, haptic interactions. We discuss the remaining challenges in integrating silicone with a broader range of materials and opportunities for developing designerly workflows for other mold-and-cast processes.
Connected products and systems are becoming popular, but they seldom provide direct and intuitive communication to the users. In this study, we applied Disney's animation principles to design the expressivity with LED lights and speakers commonly embedded in electronic devices. We explored the subtle transitions of brightness and controlled the timing to compose individual and system-level behaviors with multiple devices. The designs were evaluated and improved through three iterations. In the main study, we recruited 16 designer participants to investigate whether lights and sounds could be intuitively interpreted as what the system wanted to convey. The result shows that group light behaviors could evoke meanings that are highly similar to the intents of the system. When the acoustic accompaniments were provided, participants could better perceive the presence of devices. We concluded with six sets of light behaviors that are capable of expressing smart devices and systems' intents intuitively and unobtrusively.
Recently, researchers have become increasingly interested in finding new input methods for olfactory interfaces. Physical odor capture is a potential solution to this issue and, in order to make it more accessible for users, we designed a portable and fast smell capture prototype based on headspace technology and inspired by point-and-shoot cameras. We conducted a two-week diary study with 13 participants, in which they were allowed to freely use the prototype for odor capture activities. Through diary and interview feedback, we summarized factors such as the motivations of capturing, the collected odor types, and perceptual effects of odor replay. We found that the capture activities can positively affect user emotions, memory, or perception. User preferences on device parameters were also gathered to guide further design iterations. Physical odor capture has many potential applications in daily-life and other implications resulting from the study have been proposed for further research.
Many people utilize audio equipment to escape from noises around them, leading to the desired isolation but also dangerously reduced awareness. Mediation of sounds through smarter headphones (e.g., hearables) could address this by providing non-uniform interaction with sounds while retaining a comfortable, yet informative soundscape. In a week-long event sampling study (n = 12), we found that users mostly desire muting or a distinct "quiet-but-audible" volume for sound sources. A follow-up study (n = 12) compared a reduced interaction granularity with a continuous one in VR. Usability and workload did not differ significantly for the two granularities but a set of four states can be considered sufficient for most scenarios, namely: ''muted'', ''quieter'', ''louder'' and ''unchanged'', allowing for smoother interaction flows. We provide implications for the design of interactive auditory mediated reality systems enabling users to be safe, comfortable and less isolated from their surroundings, while re-gaining agency over their sense of hearing.
How might the capabilities of voice assistants several decades in the future shape human society? To anticipate the space of possible futures for voice assistants, we asked 149 participants to each complete a story based on a brief story stem set in the year 2050 in one of five different contexts: the home, doctor's office, school, workplace, and public transit. Story completion as a method elicits participants' visions of possible futures, unconstrained by their understanding of current technological capabilities, but still reflective of current sociocultural values. Through a thematic analysis, we find these stories reveal the extremes of the capabilities and concerns of today's voice assistants---and artificial intelligence---such as improving efficiency and offering instantaneous support, but also replacing human jobs, eroding human agency, and causing harm through malfunction. We conclude by discussing how these speculative visions might inform and inspire the design of voice assistants and other artificial intelligence.
It can be difficult for user researchers to explore how people might interact with interactive systems in everyday contexts; time and space limitations make it hard to be present everywhere that technology is used. Digital music services are one domain where designing for context is important given the myriad places people listen to music. One novel method to help design researchers embed themselves in everyday contexts is through remote-controlled speech agents. This paper describes a practitioner-centered case study of music service interaction researchers using a remote-controlled speech agent, called DJ Bot, to explore people's music interaction in the car and the home. DJ Bot allowed the team to conduct remote user research and contextual inquiry and to quickly explore new interactions. However, challenges using a remote speech-agent arose when adapting DJ Bot from the constrained environment of the car to the unconstrained home environment.
With the rise of voice assistants and an increase in mobile search usage, natural language has become an important query language. So far, most of the current systems are not able to process these queries because of the vagueness and ambiguity in natural language. Users have adapted their query formulation to what they think the search engine is capable of, which adds to their cognitive burden. With our research, we contribute to the design of interactive search systems by investigating the genuine information need in a product search scenario. In a crowd-sourcing experiment, we collected 132 information needs in natural language. We examine the vagueness of the formulations and their match to retailer-generated content and user-generated product reviews. Our findings reveal high variance on the level of vagueness and the potential of user reviews as a source for supporting users with rather vague search intents.
The role of design in organizations has risen in prominence since the turn of the century. Our collective understanding of this role, identification of designerly practices, and ability to trace their value and influence within an organizational landscape however remains problematic. Both industry and academia have made distinct efforts to study design in practice, acknowledging the importance of the value of design as a competitive instrument but with little agreement on how it is understood, communicated and operationalised. This paper takes a pragmatic orientation, exploring the contemporary challenges design practitioners face in terms of documenting, accounting for and communicating the value of designerly work. We adopt a bottom-up approach, conducting 11 semi-structured interviews with design practitioners, to study how practitioners in situ negotiate the design-value space. Our findings present design value communication strategies, how design knowledge is consumed, what documentation practices are used, and the organizational challenges encountered.
Design culture is increasingly present within organizations, especially with the rise of UX as a profession. Yet there are often disconnects between the development of a design philosophy and its translation in practice. Students preparing for UX careers are positioned in a liminal space between their educational experience and future practice, and are actively working to build a bridge between their developing philosophy of design and the translation of that philosophy when faced with the complexity of design practice. In this study, we interviewed ten students and practitioners educated within design-oriented HCI programs, focusing on their design philosophy and evaluating how their philosophical beliefs were shaped in practice. Building on prior work on flows of competence, we thematically analyzed these interviews, identifying the philosophical beliefs of these designers and their trajectories of development, adoption, or suppression in industry. We identify opportunities for enhancements to UX educational practices and future research on design complexity in industry contexts.
Research through design (RTD) is commonly conceived as a material and discursive practice of articulating knowledge. This paper contributes to the understanding of RTD as a form of critical inquiry by considering how inarticulacy can also be a productive element of this process. We present two reflective accounts of critically-engaged RTD practices in which our attempts to articulate concerns or questions were met with resistance from technology that was both the subject and medium of our investigation. We argue that encountering inarticulacy is not a failure of RTD but instead points to how material exploration can sensitise us to how network technology resists articulating certain values or concerns. Encountering inarticulacy led us to formulate new problems and new lines of inquiry. We conclude by suggesting that the central role given to ambiguity in RTD prepares us to witness and respond to inarticulacy in our practices, design outcomes and critical understandings.
While attention in Research Through Design (RtD) is often on the findings, in this pictorial, we choose to attend to the 'through' part of RtD in order to reveal the messy stories of how those insights were arrived at-stories that are often untold, truncated, or streamlined. We use a yearlong RtD project on human-data entanglements in the home as a case study to explore the contours of this process. We detail how our messy lines of inquiry crossed, dead ended, wove together, and looped. Grounded in illustrations of lines, we offer practical reflections on experiences we encountered while navigating these scribbly lines.
Morse Things are Internet connected ceramic cups and bowls that communicate with each other in Morse Code. This ongoing research iteratively asks thing-centered questions of things and technology. A premise of the Morse Things is that any understanding of a thing or technology is unstable and arguably fragile. In this pictorial, we reflect on how we as researchers, in the course of doing research with the Morse Things, unexpectedly found ourselves literally entangled in the conceptual and physical fragility of the research. This pictorial describes our growing awareness of this instability, beginning with a kintsugi repair of a broken Morse Thing, our false confidence in our package design for shipping, and the difficulties to conceptualize the machine learning world that we ourselves created. We reflect on these experiences, and now see these as reminders of the inevitable fragility and instability of research on thing-perspectives.
We argue for a new way of using pictorial publications to communicate the social, cultural, and material contexts in which "in the wild" research is carried out. Such research often allows for partial researcher perspectives, as the researchers travel to, encounter, and leave those places. However, in HCI research, the journeys and interactions in and around those places are rarely reported directly in archival papers. We argue that those journeys and interactions directly inform how we make sense of the project, and thus should be recorded and shared appropriately. We argue that pictorials can be a format that breaks the boundary between "supplementary materials" and archival publications, and allows us to do that sharing function. We illustrate this argument through reporting of our Research Journey to a number of islands off the west coast of Ireland as part of a project that is developing technology to support rural community radio.
Workplace stress is a growing problem, which is often not identified by sufferers and those around them until it becomes chronic. Moreover, admitting to feel stressed is a highly private and therefore sensitive topic, particularly at work. Informed by the findings from six in-depth interviews, we designed the manually self-adjusted wearable BuSiNec: a Busyness Signifying Necklace. 18 participants wore it at their workplace and reported on their experiences and their usage behavior through a diary and in a focus group interview. Our findings indicate that BuSiNec supports self-reflection on stress and further stimulates valuable discussions among co-users which in turn increased mutual consideration. Participants were conscious of their their displayed busyness status towards others and used the display to encourage or discourage discussions and interruptions, or as a warning of upcoming hurry. From these findings, we derive recommendations for the integration of affective state information in wearable displays.
Deploying wearable technologies in the performing arts not only concerns costume wearers but affects further stakeholders whose work is impacted by the interactive effects or who help maintain the technology. Beyond the wearer, literature neglects how these other stakeholders engage with interactive costumes, though a performance production is based on the contribution of many parties. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine how stakeholders of a youth ballet production experience and appropriate interactive costuming. Our findings suggest that user experiences vary according to stakeholders' closeness to the costume, background and taste, the costume interaction mode and social environment. We expand existing models of technology appropriation with two novel technology relations: professional reserve and polite indifference. Based on these, we suggest integration into existing practices, to design for the show, and create positive experiences to incorporate interactive costumes in the performing arts and discuss relevance for other professional fields.
This study aims to clarify the effect of non-speech sound augmentation (i.e., everyday and instrumental sounds) on outdoor play for children, where has been lacking in empirical examination. In a within-subject observational study, sixteen children (ages 10-11) were divided into four equally sized groups and equipped with SoundWear, which is a wearable bracelet that allowed them to explore sounds, pick a desired sound, generate the sound with a swinging movement, and transfer the sound between multiple devices. Both the quantitative and qualitative results revealed that augmenting everyday sounds led to distinct play types with differences in physical, social, and imaginative behaviors, whereas instrumental sounds were naturally integrated into traditional games. Thus, sound augmentation with specific digital design features (e.g., transparent technology to provide new perspectives, margin for interpretation, and ownership through a sense of achievement) is significant for shaping distinctions in digitally enhanced play and requires considerable design attention.
Monarch is a wearable electronics prototype that enables the wearer to amplify or extend body language through the use of a muscle-activated kinetic textile for the purpose of augmented social interaction. This pictorial details the second prototype stage with a focus on addressing the wearability [5,14], technical, and production challenges resulting from the first prototype . The purpose of these improvements is to enable a small batch production of the prototype for further testing in daily life. Design decisions are brought to the foreground for observation and reflection, including those surrounding material choices and production methods. The result is a detailed visual account of the generative and evaluative discoveries  as well as a contribution of several recommendations that can be applied to small batch production of wearable electronic prototypes in a research lab context.
Fashion technology designs typically combine sensing technology and actuators to register and respond to information about the environment and/or the human body. The ways in which designers use and integrate these data into garments, however, varies on a scale from highly theatrical and outward-oriented designs to subtle and inward-oriented applications. This pictorial presents five garment designs created between 2013 and 2020, that occupy the more utilitarian and inward-oriented end of the fashion technology spectrum (Fig 1). We visualize and analyze how these five designs combine sensing and actuation, highlighting the benefits of direct biofeedback and of keeping the personal data within the garment. The pictorial aims to show that striking the right balance between sensing and actuation is pivotal to realizing the physical, functional, social and ethical wearability of fashion technology design.